Hyacinth - rain flower
As you know, this flower is one of the first to blossom in the garden at the beginning of the season and delights gardeners with bright and unusually fragrant flowers. Hyacinth (Hyacinthus) - a universal plant that is suitable for open ground, for early forcing indoors, as well as for cutting. About the features of growing hyacinths - this article.
- Botanical description of the plant
- Choosing a Place for Hyacinths in the Garden
- Soil for hyacinths
- Planting hyacinths
- Hyacinth Care
- Hyacinths after flowering
- Hyacinth Bulb Storage
- Hyacinth propagation
- Hyacinth Diseases and Pests
- Types of Hyacinths
Botanical description of the plant
The hyacinth bulb is dense, consisting of fleshy grassroots leaves that occupy the entire circumference of the onion of the bulb with their bases. A flowering stem is a direct continuation of the stem, which is nothing more than the lower, greatly shortened and thick part of the stem.
After the hyacinth blooms, the green flower-bearing stem, along with the green leaves sitting at the very bottom, dries out, but in the corner of the highest of the green leaves, a bud is formed on the stem, inside the bulb, which gradually grows and turns into a young bulb that blooms on next year. In this young bulb of hyacinth in the autumn, a stem with flowers of the next year is already completely laid, of course, in the most compressed form.
In addition to this young bulb, other weaker bulbs, the so-called babies, which can be separated, are often formed in the corners of the remaining green leaves. Three years later, they can bloom.
Hyacinth flowers are collected at the top of the stem in the form of a brush. Their perianth, in the form of a bell-shaped funnel, is brightly colored and with bent blades.
The fruit is in the form of a leathery box with three nests containing two seeds with a fragile skin.
Choosing a Place for Hyacinths in the Garden
The place for hyacinths should be well lit and protected from strong winds. Some gardeners recommend planting them, like other bulbs, next to shrubs and trees. This advice is hardly good. Yes, in the spring of sun there is enough, but the roots of trees and shrubs absorb nutrients from the soil to the detriment of hyacinths.
The area for hyacinths is preferable even, preferably with a slight slope, providing a flow of water during spring snowmelt and during heavy rains. Prolonged flooding leads to massive diseases and the death of bulbs. Groundwater should lie no closer than 50-60 cm. At a high level, they drain or arrange bulk ridges.
Soil for hyacinths
Hyacinths need water-permeable, well-fertilized soils with a high content of humus, but fresh and poorly decomposed manure is unacceptable. River clay and peat are added to clay, dense soil. It is undesirable to grow hyacinths on acidic soils. Acidic soils must be calcified using chalk or limestone to a pH of at least 6.5.
Specialists advise preparing the site for planting hyacinths back in August, two months before planting the bulbs, otherwise a natural sediment of the soil can cause a clipping of the roots, which will begin to develop in autumn.
The soil must be deeply cultivated, to a depth of 40 cm. For digging, humus or rotted manure is applied at the rate of 10-15 kg per 1 m2, sand, peat and mineral fertilizers: 60-80 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium sulfate and 15 per 1 m² g of magnesium sulfate.
Potassium sulfate can be replaced with 200 g of wood ash, and magnesium sulfate with 250 g of dolomite flour. On sandy soils, doses of potash and magnesium fertilizers should be increased by 1.5 times. As for nitrogen fertilizers, they are best applied in the spring and summer in the form of top dressing.
In the middle zone of Russia, hyacinth bulbs are planted in late September - early October. If planting too early, hyacinths can start to grow and die in winter, and if planted too late, they will not have time to take root until the soil freezes to the planting depth.
When planting hyacinths, D. G. Hession recommends, in addition to observing the depth and density of planting, to remember two things: first, to choose not the largest bulbs that are intended for forcing, but medium-sized bulbs, the so-called “flower beds”, to plant giving more resistant to weather stalks; secondly, well-rotted compost or peat should be added to the wells during planting if it was not added during preliminary digging of the soil.
However, you can plant hyacinths until the first half of November. But then the place should be pre-insulated with leaves or other material from those that are at hand, and protected with a film from rain and snow. And after planting, re-lay the insulation.
The feeding area of hyacinth bulbs is 15x20 cm. The planting depth from the bottom of the bulbs is 15-18 cm for collapsible, large bulbs, about 5 cm in diameter. Small bulbs and children are planted denser and not so deep.
For hyacinths, as for all bulbs, landing in a “sand shirt” is very desirable.
The technology does not change at the same time: clean river sand is poured onto the bottom of the grooves or holes with a layer of 3-5 cm. The bulb is slightly pressed into it, then it is covered with sand, and then soil. This technique will eliminate the decay of the bulbs, protect against infection in the soil, and improve drainage. If the ground is dry, watering should be watered to improve the rooting of the bulbs.
If there are a lot of hyacinths, they are planted on ridges 15-20 cm high to protect the bulbs from meltwater. In spring, the ridges warm up quickly, they have good aeration of the upper layer. In addition, film shelters are easy to install on ridges. Planted in rows at a distance of 20-25 cm, between adjacent bulbs in a row leave at least 3 bulb diameters (for adult bulbs - 12-15 cm).
With the onset of sustained cold weather, it is advisable to think about sheltering plantings of hyacinths. To do this, you can use mulching materials such as dry peat, humus, sawdust, as well as dry fallen leaves and spruce branches, and in spring, as soon as the soil begins to thaw, the shelter must be carefully removed, since the sprouts of hyacinths appear very early.
Hyacinths - a culture that requires care. The soil around the plantings must be kept clean, loosen it several times during the season, and be watered in dry times (water should soak an earthen lump to a depth of 15-20 cm). During the growing season, plants should be fed 2-3 times. An important preventive measure is the removal of diseased plants from the site (culling is carried out 2-3 times). The peduncle must be cut with a sharp knife; if the inflorescence is not cut, then at the end of flowering it is necessary to cut off the flowers, leaving a peduncle.
Hyacinth fertilizers can be applied in dry form or dissolved in water. In the latter case, fertilizers are taken slightly less, and the soil is moistened well before fertilizing. The first dressing should be given at the beginning of plant growth (20-25 g of nitrate and 15-20 g of superphosphate per square meter of planting). 2nd - during the budding period (30-35 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium sulfate). 3rd - at the end of flowering (30-35 g of superphosphate and 30-35 g of potassium sulfate). Hyacinths can be fed microfertilizers (make them in the same quantities as under tulips). After fertilizing, the soil is loosened, covering the fertilizer with a chopper.
Hyacinths after flowering
If the bulbs of Dutch hyacinths are left after flowering in the open field, they will bloom worse in the second year. Therefore, it is better to wait until the leaves of the hyacinths turn yellow, and dig out the bulbs.
The famous Russian flower grower A. Razin noted that the end of June and the beginning of July is the best time to dig hyacinths. Despite the troubles, the flower grower believed that one of the conditions for the successful cultivation of hyacinths is the annual digging of bulbs. It allows you to inspect the bulbs, separate the children for growing, treat the bulbs in order to prevent disease and protect against pests, and destroy diseased specimens. A. Razin dug bulbs, washed them with clean water, and then dried them under a canopy in the shade. The flower grower dug up, dried and peeled from leaves and roots of the bulb for storage.
Hyacinth Bulb Storage
Storage of dug bulbs is the most critical period. It was at this time in the bulb that the process of inflorescence formation was taking place. Its various stages require different temperatures in a certain duration and sequence. Dug hyacinths are more demanding of heat than tulips or daffodils.
Immediately after digging, the bulbs of hyacinths are dried for 5-7 days at 20 ° C in a darkened ventilated room, cleaned of the earth and residual roots, then sorted by size and put in boxes in no more than 2 layers. Small baby is not separated.
If the bulbs are few, they are conveniently stored in paper bags with labels. Further storage of large flowering bulbs of hyacinths is recommended in 2 stages: the first - at elevated temperatures, the second - preplant.
In the first stage, hyacinth bulbs contain at least 2 months at 25..26 ° C, and in the second -1 month at 17 ° C. The humidity in the room should not be too low, otherwise the bulbs will dry out. If you want to reduce the first stage by a week, then in the first week of the first stage raise the temperature to 30 ° C (the room should be well ventilated).
It is easy to calculate that the total duration of the preparatory period is at least 95 days. Plus, before planting, it is useful to keep hyacinths in a cold room at temperatures close to outdoor. So it turns out that in order to plant them in the ground in the first ten days of October, the bulbs must be dug later than the beginning of July. Late digging and storage of bulbs at too low a temperature are the main reasons for the continued sparse flowering of hyacinths.
Often during the storage period in bulbs of hyacinths around the bottom, numerous small children are formed. They easily break off, and therefore bulbs with children should be planted in the ground especially carefully. At the same time, the planting depth must be halved and it is imperative to cover the planted bulbs with a layer of mulch, increasing it compared to a conventional shelter. Such children grow up 4-5 years. It is very simple to cause their formation: immediately after digging, wipe the bottom of the bulb firmly with a dry rag, removing the roots.
When breeding new varieties of hyacinths, the seed method is used. Seedlings do not repeat the external signs of parent plants. They bloom only after 5-7 years. Seeds are sown in the autumn, at the end of September, in boxes with soil made up of humus, leafy soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1, and grown for the first 2 years in cold greenhouses.
Natural reproduction of hyacinths is slow. Depending on the variety, an adult onion forms 1-2 children per year, rarely 3 or 4, and even less often, their number can reach 5-8.
If the hyacinths are well separated from the mother's bulb, they are reared separately. If the children separate poorly, daughter bulbs do not break off and plant the mother's bulb with the children.
In industrial floriculture, hyacinths are not propagated by natural division, but an artificial method of reproduction is practiced. To quickly obtain a large number of bulbs, they resort to special methods of forced reproduction of hyacinths.
Since the scaly leaves of the membranous bulbs are very large, cover almost the entire bulb and are not so easily separated from the base as the scales of the bulbous bulbs, then until new plants form, the incised scaly leaves in the membranous bulbs should be left undisturbed from the bottom.
This principle is used in two methods of reproduction by dissecting the bulbs: cutting and notching the bottom. True, in this case, the bulbs are first injured, and then slowly die.
Hyacinth bulbs intended for artificial propagation must undergo preliminary treatment: they are disinfected in a 1% potassium permanganate solution, and then dried for at least 2 days at a temperature of +20 .. + 23 ºС.
F. McMillan Brows in his book “Plant Reproduction” describes in detail both methods of forced propagation of hyacinths.
This operation is carried out at the end of the dormancy period of the bulbs. To successfully cut the bottom, minimally damaging the bulb, you should choose a tool. It’s best to use a teaspoon with a sharp edge to cut out the bottom. The rest of the hyacinth bulb is left untouched, and then it is checked whether all their scaly leaves have been removed. This can be done with a knife, but it is easy for them to damage the center of the bulb.
To reduce the likelihood of diseases, the surface of the slices of scaly leaves is treated with fungicide. Bulbs are placed in boxes in an inverted position with a slice up. They can also be stored on a wire mesh or dry sand tray.
In order to cause callus formation at the base of the scales and to delay the possible spread of diseases, the bulbs are kept at a temperature not lower than + 21 ° С. After about two to three months, young onions form on slices of scales. On one bulb of hyacinths, 20-40 children can form.
The mother's bulb in the same inverted position is planted in a pot so that the children are slightly covered with a substrate. Plants are hardened and then kept in a cold greenhouse. In the spring, the bulbs start growing and form leaves, and the old bulb gradually collapses. At the end of the growing season, young bulbs are dug up, divided and planted for growing. Young plants can bloom in 3-4 years.
Hyacinth bulb incision
Hyacinths can be propagated faster if you use a method similar to the previous one. The only difference is that instead of cutting the bottom, only a few cuts up to 0.6 cm deep are made on the bottom of the bulb.
On a large bulb of hyacinth, usually 4 incisions are made at right angles to each other (two intersecting cruciforms), and on smaller ones, it is enough to make 2 incisions. In this case, the number of bulbs formed decreases, but they are larger.
Hyacinth bulbs are pre-disinfected in the same way as when cutting the bottom. Incised bulbs are placed in a dry, warm place (+ 21 ° C) for a day: under these conditions, the incisions open better. When the incisions are opened, they are treated with fungicide.
The subsequent operations and storage conditions of the bulbs are the same as in the previous method. As a result, bulbs are formed in the amount of 8-15 pieces, which will take 2-3 years to grow. Cutting and notching the bottom is used not only for the propagation of hyacinths. These methods are also used in the cultivation of daffodils, snowdrops, muskars, forest stands, and white flowers.
Hyacinth Diseases and Pests
In the open ground in the middle zone, hyacinths almost do not suffer from diseases and pests. More dangers await them in greenhouses and during distillation. If nevertheless hyacinths get sick in the flower garden, this is most often caused by:
- The acquisition of already contaminated material;
- Landing on heavy acidic waterlogged soil;
- The use of fresh manure or an excess of mineral fertilizers;
- Planting after adverse predecessors (other bulbs, as well as root crops);
- The bulbs were not rejected during the growing season, after digging, during storage and before planting;
- Forgot about prevention (pickling bulbs, and during forcing - and soil);
- Landings were thickened.
When infected with pests, hyacinths lag behind in growth, their flower stalks are curved, there is early yellowing and wilting.For prophylaxis, the bulbs are etched before planting in one of the phosphorus-containing preparations for 15-20 minutes. Patient hyacinths are dug up and destroyed, and the rest are also treated with phosphorus-containing drugs.
Of the diseases, bacterial yellow rot is more common than others. With it, the tissues of the bulb turn into mucus with a sharp unpleasant odor. During the growing season, the disease can be detected by growth retardation, the appearance of stripes and spots on the peduncle and leaves, their decay. Bulbs have obvious signs of damage. In all cases, diseased plants and bulbs are destroyed (it is best to burn). The pit is etched with 5% formalin or bleach, where hyacinths can be returned only after a few years.
Hyacinths often have a phenomenon of loss of inflorescence: an inflorescence, barely appearing above the ground, falls out of a leaf outlet. This phenomenon is not associated with a plant disease, but is due to physiological reasons - an increase in root pressure. It is caused by excess moisture in the soil, by storing the bulbs at an insufficiently high temperature and early planting of the bulbs.
Types of Hyacinths
There are different views on the taxonomy of the genus. According to some researchers, it numbers up to 30 species, while others consider it to be monotypic, i.e. with one species, but which has a large number of varieties and forms. Hyacinth grows wild in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean and Central Asia.
From myself I will add a beautiful legend that is associated with the name of the flower. It comes from the name of the hero of Greek mythology - a beautiful young man named Hyakintos (or Hyakinf of Amikl), in whom the sun god Apollo was in love.
Once during a discus training session, the zealous god of the West Wind, Zephyr, who was also in love with Hyakynthos, mortally wounded a young man. On the spot of spilled blood of Hyakintos, a charming flower grew, which Apollo named after his deceased loved one.
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