Jujube - Jujuba - Chinese Date
Jujube, unabi, thoracic berry, Chinese date, jujuba - there are many names, and we are talking about the same plant from the genus Jujube. Jujube is an oldest fruit plant, spread throughout the globe in areas with a warm climate, probably cultivated seven to eight thousand years ago. In China, unabi has long been recognized as one of the leading fruit crops. A collection of large-fruited Chinese varieties of jujube has been created in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden in Crimea.
Description of jujube
Plants are characterized by early maturity and drought tolerance. The fruits are very nutritious, rich in sugars, vitamins, have medicinal properties. For medicinal purposes, roots and bark are also used. More important than other types of jujube is jujube, or Jujube.
Jujube, maker, unabi, jujuba, jujub, Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba) - a species of plants of the genus Jujube (Ziziphus) of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).
Shrub or jujube tree 3-5 to 10 (10) m high. Shoots are cranked, bare, red-brown, on bends with spikes up to 3 cm long and thin, straight, greenish fruitful shoots resembling a complex leaf. The fruits of jujube are spherical, oblong or pear-shaped, 1.5 cm long, from light brown to dark brown, shiny, weighing 1-20 (50) g.
The plant is heat-resistant, unpretentious to soils. Despite its southern origin, it is quite winter-hardy even in the regions of Northern China, where the winter air temperature drops to minus 25 ° C. In case of freezing, jujube is quickly restored. Early varieties of jujube require a sum of effective temperatures (greater than 10 ° C) for the growing season 1600-1800 ° C.
Jujube has a late onset of vegetation in April-May, and, accordingly, late flowering, which begins in June-July and lasts one to three months. Jujube cross-pollinated by insects. Self-pollination of jujube is possible, but it is not significant.
Growing jujuba from seeds
Seeds of large-fruited jujube varieties have low germination, therefore, small-fruited forms are used to grow seedlings. The fruits are removed well ripened. Purified jujube seeds are warmed up in the sun or periodically filled for several days with water heated to 60 ° C. Apply warm stratification at a temperature of 20-35 ° C for a month. Sow seeds in warm soil. Germination increases if you cover the crops with film. Two-three-year-old jujube seedlings enter fruiting.
Jujube seedlings with a root neck thickness of 6-10 mm are suitable for budding. It is carried out by a sleeping kidney in July-August or, if the stocks do not fit, by a germinating kidney in May. In the latter case, use buds from lignified cuttings of jujube, harvested before the start of the growing season. In May, it is possible to inoculate with an oblique wedge into the lateral incision, and behind the bark.
In addition to the seed method, rootstocks of jujube can be grown from root cuttings 8-12 cm long. They are planted vertically flush with the soil surface.
If there is a root shoot, it is separated and grown in the spring.
Jujube also propagates by vertical and horizontal layers.
Care for jujube
For the spring planting of jujube, the upper and lower parts of the southern and southwestern slopes or even protected areas are selected. The distance of one plant from another is 2-3 m. The seedlings are buried by 10 cm.
In areas where winter freezing is frequent, plants are best grown in a bush-shaped yuba.
Jujube is resistant to pests and diseases.
Jujube fruits ripen in late September-October. For processing, they are removed when a brown integument appears on a third of the surface, for fresh consumption - at full maturity. Jujube fruits can not be removed for a long time, leaving to wither directly on the tree, and then shake off. For removal, “combs” with teeth are used after 1 cm. The fruits of jujube are combed onto the film, and then they are separated from fruitful shoots and leaves. Harvest up to 30 kg from a tree. Dried fruits are stored for two years or longer.
Warning. Do not chew the leaves of jujube. This can lead to a temporary loss of perception of a sweet and bitter taste.
Author: V. Mezhensky, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.