Garden Abutilon Forms
Indoor maples in the new millennium are considered one of the most popular plants. And when abutilons are also found in gardens, they seem very exotic aliens. Garden abutilons do not look much different from indoor species, but recently special frost-resistant novelties have appeared. About the features of growing garden abutilones and the most interesting varieties for decorative gardening - our article.
- Container and primordial garden abutilons
- The use of abutilones in decorative gardening
- Abutilon conditions in the garden
- Garden Abutilon Care
- Wintering of corinabutilones and container abutilones
- Pest and Disease Control
- Propagation of garden abutilons
Container and primordial garden abutilons
Among the relatives of ordinary indoor abutilons and their many species there are plants that, in addition to their usual characteristics, can also boast frost resistance or increased endurance. And although it would be more correct to call such unique plants not abutilones, but corinabutilones, they completely changed our idea of abutilons as a whole.
The removal of frost-resistant abutilones has created a lot of confusion in their classification and even today causes controversy. In our country, cinnabutilones are considered a rarity, but they are actively tested in botanical collections, and seeds can already be found on sale in specialized catalogs.
Thanks to the appearance of winter-hardy relatives on the plant market, the assortment of garden abutilones has changed and now it includes two groups of plants:
- Authentic frames abutilons (representatives of the genus Abutilon).
- Frost resistant abutilons or corinabutylones (representatives of the genus Corynabutilon).
Both those and other plants belong to the Malva family, they are indistinguishable in foliage and flowering, but vary significantly in size.
The name "indoor maple" in relation to the abutilones used in landscaping the garden is used as rarely as the name corinabutilon. More often you can find the second (folk) name of the plant - ropes. It is under this name that the most frequently distributed novelties are corinabutilones, which are grown mainly in open soil.
Abutilones and corinabutilones are bright shrubs and herbaceous perennials. In nature, they are found on the territory of South America, in the tropical and subtropical zone of other continents, rightfully ranked as hygrophilous exotics. But unlike the tropical species that are well-known to everyone, the more hardy corinabutilones come from Chile, where in a harsh climate the plants acquired their unexpected qualities and stability.
These are evergreen and deciduous, quite powerful shrubs, the height of which ranges from 1.5 m to more than 3 m in the absence of formation. Lush and straight bushes show off with large leaves of very saturated colors. The leaves sit alternately, heart-shaped or divided into 3 or 5 lobes, reminiscent of maple in shape.
Thanks to the foliage, this plant got its popular nickname. Abutilon flowers are easily recognizable by their special, goblet or cupped shape. Corolla petals fuse into a flashlight or bell, flowers are always single. Abutilones are so popular thanks to touching graceful buds, lush anthers and stamens, fused with a pestle and protruding from the corolla. This houseplant offers to enjoy touching details.
Among hybrid abutilons, variegated color variations of foliage are often found, but there is even more choice in the color of inflorescences. Classic yellow or white, orange, red, delicate shades of pink in flower bells, they are invariably pastel and beautiful. The veins on the petals emphasize their translucent texture. The hybrid ropewig blooms, as a rule, tirelessly, from the end of spring to October. But with improper care, the flowering period can be shorter.
The most popular varieties of corinabutilones and hybrid abutilones
Of the corinabutilones, in the genus of which there are only a dozen plants, today in gardening they are increasingly using:
- Grape leaf or sheep (Corynabutilon vitifolium) - a magnificent powerful deciduous shrub, with age, in favorable conditions, turning into a tree. The maximum height in nature is not limited to 5 m, but in a garden culture plants will not exceed 2 m. The diameter of the bushes is almost two times lower than the height due to its neat shape. Shoots are powerful, felt, green, form a beautiful slender crown. Lobed oval leaves are decorated with a nice gray edge and a serrated edge, they reach a length of 15 cm and are very reminiscent of pubescent grape leaves. Cup-shaped flowers up to 8 cm in diameter are collected in rare brush inflorescences. The color scheme is limited to white, pink and purple colors. The grape-leaved garden abutilon blooms in May, pleasing with its flowering a little more than a month.
- Corinabutilon Ohsen (Corynabutilon ochsenii) - A compact and wide shrub about a meter and a half high with interesting twisted shoots. Leaves up to 7 cm long are arranged next to each other, they are divided into 3-5 lobes and flaunt with a typical serrated edge, but sit on fairly long petioles, which gives the whole bush additional openwork. The edge on the foliage is almost invisible. Single or paired lilac flower bells are surprisingly elegant. The flowers of this species are smaller, they show off with their dark spots at the base of the petals.
- Corinabutilone Santensa (Corynabutilon × suntense) - a relatively new hybrid, obtained on the basis of the two previous species, it is considered the most winter-hardy and abundantly flowering abutilon for garden culture. At one time, the presentation of this plant at the exhibition became a real sensation and brought the creators many awards. This plant is characterized by compact, densely branching, strikingly lush bushes with densely sitting bright greenery, as well as flowering, which can last all summer. The leaves are soft, velvety, pubescent. Cup-shaped flowers amaze with the beauty of textures and delicate pastel colors, they bloom in inflorescences, surprising with their large size.
Of the container, or non-frost-resistant abutilones in garden culture, they are mainly used hybrid abutilones (Abutilon x hybridum). But two more types of abutilones are grown as garden tubs, rather than houseplants:
— painted abutilon (Abutilon pictum) with its compact densely branched bushes, beautiful bright leaves; most often they are variegated, and the flowers resemble neat glasses of the most delicate colors; it is a typical abutilon, whose main advantage, of course, is its rapid growth;
- megapotam abutilon (Abutilon megapotamicum) – a beautiful plant with drooping shoots, thin, grayish, touching, emerald green elongated leaves and lantern-like flowers with a red "cup" and a yellow corolla; stamens are strikingly long; they hang from drooping flowers, an atypical purple color; this cable car blooms from May to September.
Abutilones, changing their indoor career to a garden one, differ from purely indoor or greenhouse plants not only in the abundance of flowering. The leaves of such garden cadres grow denser, the shoots branch better and are stronger, and the leaves themselves exceed the competitors by several times. It is at the garden abutilons that one can observe the brightest colors; at lower temperatures, the flowers are decorated with a charming blush.
Frame abutilons can be selected according to colors, the variety of which exceeded the scope of ordinary pastel tones and includes even rare fruit shades, as well as the shape of flowers, unusual or variegated color of the leaves, the desired shape of the bush. The choice must be made so that the plant becomes a stylish touch in the design of any garden and reveals its character as best as possible.
The use of abutilones in decorative gardening
Container or tank abutilons require protected locations. But precisely because of this peculiarity, they can become the main star of landscaping adjacent to the house territories, covered gazebos and recreation areas under a canopy. On the terrace and veranda, the beauty of flowering and the grace of colorful abutilons will appear in a completely new light, and the plant will delight you with much longer flowering than its indoor competitors.
With timely hardening, even ordinary abutilones can be buried in a tub or pot in the soil or planted in the open ground for the summer, using to decorate flower beds.
Corinabutilons today are trying to adapt to the culture of open soil with careful shelter for the winter. These are powerful plants, which, regardless of the chosen method of shelter for the winter, are almost always planted in the soil. Corinabutilones are used to decorate front gardens and ceremonial compositions, as single accents, in flower beds by the terrace or recreation area - where the beauty of this exotic will become the main decoration of the garden.
Partners for garden abutilons are any exotic and classic tubas, as well as bright annual plants. But abutilons look no worse and in splendid isolation.
Abutilon conditions in the garden
For the cultivation of corinabutilones in tubs, in open soil or for the instillation of container plants, it is necessary to carefully select places. Garden abutilons are photophilous, but the daytime sun will negatively affect both foliage and flowering. Plants are placed in places with diffuse, soft lighting. Where only evening and morning suns will fall on the bushes or in places where there is a slight shading from large trees.
If abutilon is grown as a garden frame, which is cleaned for the winter in the room, then the conditions for it begin to be selected not at all from lighting or soil. Particular attention should be paid to the protection of container plants from rain and wind. Abutilon containers are exposed on the terrace, porch or under a canopy, where the plant will not suffer from wind and rain. Any abutilons, except megapotamsk, will prefer bright lighting, but megapotam abutilon needs to choose shaded areas. Moreover, any abutilons should not “contact” with the midday sun, and the air at the place of plant exposure should not stagnate.
For garden abutilons, it is very important to choose loose, high-quality, permeable and nutritious soil. Both the substrate in the pots and the soil on the flower bed should be light, nutritious, but at the same time - moisture-resistant. In the soil to improve the performance, you can add a hydrogel or special loosening additives, compost.
Planting and transplanting plants is quite simple to carry out:
- Frame and container abutilons are transplanted annually - in large containers with good drainage holes, at the very beginning of the active growth phase. For abutilones use the transshipment method.
- When digging up potted abutilones in the soil, they prepare landing pits according to the size of the container with a slightly greater depth, drainage is laid at the bottom, and then simply install the container in the pit.
- If abutilons are planted in open ground, then the plant is installed in large landing pits with drainage laid at the bottom (depth and diameter - about 50 cm).
The level of deepening for plants is kept the same. Any landing is completed by watering and mulching. The best time for digging and planting in the soil is May, mid or end of the month.
Garden Abutilon Care
Container abutilons are watered regularly, maintaining a stable average soil moisture and letting the substrate dry in the upper layer before the next watering. The plant does not like droughts, but abutilons are watered very carefully. For abutilons buried or planted in the soil, watering is carried out, focusing on the weather and the rate of drying out of the soil, mainly during periods of drought. In any case, abundant watering in summer and autumn should be reduced to a minimum of light humidity, so that the plant is prepared in time for wintering, regardless of the method of sheltering it.
Top dressing for garden plants is carried out only in spring and summer, stopping them at the end of summer, bearing in mind the quality preparation of plants for wintering.
A prerequisite for the cultivation of any garden abutilons, even tubal ones, is mulching the soil. Any plant material with a layer of 5 cm or more stabilizes soil characteristics, protects the root system from overheating, simplifies maintenance and eliminates the need for loosening and frequent watering. Equally important is the protection function from return frosts and from autumn cooling.
Abutilon, like most exotics, will need regular removal of fading flowers. This simple procedure allows you to maximize the flowering of garden abutilons.
The main pruning of abutilons is carried out only in the early spring, at the very beginning of active vegetation. The cropping procedure should include two mandatory components:
- Sanitary cleaning. All thinned, unproductive, damaged or dry shoots are removed from the plant.
- Formation. Abutilone can be shaped to the desired shape, maintain strict contours and control dimensions.
During the season, the main pruning is supplemented by the removal of damaged twigs and pruning too long shoots. Usually, the degree of shortening of the shoots is limited to 1 / 3-2 / 3 of their length.
Wintering of corinabutilones and container abutilones
Even corinabutilones or garden abutilones, including the best of the hybrid Abutilon Santens, with all the declared and advertised frost resistance, can withstand a maximum of 12 degrees of frost. Grape-leaved corinabutilones withstand frosts up to a maximum of -5 degrees. If the adaptation is carried out correctly before they are taken out to the garden, then tubed garden abutilons will be able to withstand light return or first autumn frosts, especially with high-quality mulching of the soil. But they will not be able to winter in the soil.
It is possible to grow corinabutilones with a light shelter in the form of earthing up without digging for the winter in the southern regions. Abutilon Santensa is especially promising for a mild climate. In the middle lane, the most reliable option for wintering a plant is digging and transferring it to containers that are kept cool during the winter. If there is a collection of corinabutilones, then you can try to set aside one plant with an air-dry shelter with careful warming.
The only difference is in the excavation and the timing of drift for wintering. Ordinary tubular abutilons, if they were adapted to cooling in spring, can be carried away when the threat of the first frosts appears, and the night temperature approaches 0.
Corinabutilones can be removed from the garden only after the first frosts, leaving in the garden on much larger lines and focusing on the leaves of the plant. Abutilon Santens is the last to be carried out of the garden. The plants dug into the soil are dug up gently, cutting the roots sprouted through the drainage holes. The plants planted in the soil are dug up with a large earthen lump, and then the roots are shortened to the volume of the maximum available container or tub. If there are large containers, the roots can only be trimmed partially.
Plants must be kept for several weeks under intermediate conditions - in quarantine or in the buffer zone. Cleaning of dry leaves, removal of dry inflorescences and sanitary pruning of damaged shoots before wintering are mandatory, as well as removal of contaminated topsoil.
Overhead abutilons should winter in a bright room with a minimum of watering that only supports viability of the rhizome, without top dressing.The key role is played by air temperature: the maximum allowable value for the frame abutilon is + 15 ° С, comfortable - from +10 to + 12 ° С.
Removing plants into the garden or for planting on the terrace, for digging or planting - all this requires an equally long adaptation. Plants are gradually accustomed to bright lighting, low temperatures and fresh air, taking them out for a few hours to the balcony or to the garden on fine days.
The gradual lengthening of the period of stay in the fresh air allows the abutilons, by the time the air temperature at night is at a stable, warm mark (not lower than 5 degrees), to undergo sufficient hardening for their full transfer to the garden. But even in the garden, abutilon is first put up for several weeks in the "buffer zone", and then it is moved or planted in a permanent place.
First in the garden, from the beginning of May, you can take cinnabutilones. Arched abutilons usually move to the garden only by mid-May. If they were adapted correctly, garden abutilons will not be afraid of light age-related frosts.
Pest and Disease Control
When grown as a garden plant, the cable car continues to be not the most persistent shrub. Whiteflies often inhabit the leaves of the plant, and aphids spread throughout the plant amazingly quickly.
At the first signs of infection of a plant, it is better to immediately begin the fight against pests with insecticides. Within a few years after infection, abutilones need to be sprayed 2-3 times per season for prevention.
Prevention is the best strategy for growing garden abutilones. The risk of infection of this gentle and pest-attracting plant when kept outdoors is very high. You can get rid of most of the problems if, before taking to the garden, as well as 1-2 times during the season, warning sprayings with systemic insecticides are carried out.
Propagation of garden abutilons
Similarly to obtaining new generations of indoor maples, plants can be obtained from seeds and by simple rooting of apical cuttings according to standard techniques (under a hood, in warm and light soil). Variegated varieties propagate only vegetatively.
If abutilon is growing in your garden, share your experience of growing it in the comments to the article. Our readers will be very grateful.