Protecting flowers from pests and diseases
Of great importance for the protection of flower crops from pests and diseases is strict adherence to all recommendations for growing plants. In particular, care should not be neglected. Before growing flowers, it is necessary to familiarize yourself in detail in the relevant literature on floriculture with the requirements of plants for light, moisture, soil, fertilizers, know the timing of planting and sowing, growing conditions. Creating optimal conditions for the cultivation of flower crops will avoid the loss of their decorative qualities.
An important role is played by the correct choice of the site in terms of sun exposure, humidity, soil composition. In the presence of acidic soils on which horsetail grows, liming should be carried out, i.e., spread lime on the soil surface at the rate of 3-4 kg per 10 m 2 and close it up, digging the soil. This event is held I every 5-7 years. If acid soil is not calcified, then an infection accumulates in them, which causes diseases such as root rot, leaf and stem spotting, scab, etc.
Fertilizers must be applied to soil poor in nutrients. Plants grown on fertilized soil become more resistant to infection by many diseases and damage by pests. With a lack of nitrogen in the soil, plants grow slowly, develop poorly, leaves turn light green with yellowness, and general inhibition affects flowering. The lack of phosphorus is manifested in the delay of flowering. Flowers are formed small, ugly. With potassium starvation, seed yield and germination, plant resistance to pathogens of fungal diseases during growth and storage are reduced.
An important role in protecting flowers from pests and diseases is played by the quality of planting material. First of all, he must be healthy. To do this, before planting, thoroughly sorting and cleaning the corms and etching them with a solution of potassium permanganate (15 g per 10 l of water) against scab and dry rot is carried out. Rhizomes of peonies, irises and other flowering plants are cleaned of the earth and rotted roots, disinfected by soaking in a solution of potassium permanganate (30-50 g per 10 l of water), copper chloroxide (40 g per 10 l of water), trace elements (0.09 g 10 l of water) to kill root rot pathogens. If thrips and root onion mites are found on the planting material, the bulbs should be pickled with 10% karbofos (75 g per 10 l of water) for 20-30 minutes or 20% celtan (20 g per 10 l of water).
Due to the fact that pathogens and pests accumulate in the soil, in particular the stem nematode, it is not recommended to plant plants every year in the same place. It is advisable to plant flower crops in the same place only after 4-5 years. Planting of plants should be carried out in a timely manner, at the time indicated in the recommendations. In this case, it is necessary to observe the correct distance between plants, weed in a timely manner, as thickened plantings are more damaged by slugs and are affected by fungal and viral diseases. In the case of manifestation of root rot in the previous year, it is necessary to water the soil during planting in the current year with copper chloride (40 g per 10 l of water), potassium permanganate (50 g per 10 l of water), microelements (0.09 g per 10 l of water). In case of danger of damage to bulb crops by spring cabbage fly larvae, the plant should be fired with ash infusion (50 g per 10 l of water). To scare away adult flies, you can sprinkle the soil with mothballs mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 1.
Emergence of seedlings
During this period, it is necessary to remove from the site and destroy undeveloped and underdeveloped plants affected by fungal, viral diseases, nematodes and damaged by flares, larvae of flies.
To avoid the manifestation of gray rot from peonies, shelters are removed in a timely manner. Affected shoots are cut and burned.
When signs of the disease appear with root rot of peonies, phlox, and other cultures, plants and soil are irrigated around the bushes with copper chloride (40 g per 10 l of water).
Before the appearance of colored buds
In wet weather, when there is a danger of severe development of gray rot, watering or 2-3-time spraying should be carried out after 12-14 days with one of the preparations: copper chloroxide (40 g per 10 l of water), boric acid (2 g per 10 l of water), copper-soap emulsion (25 g per 10 l of water), sodium phosphate (75 g per 10 l of water).
When the first spots appear on the leaves (manifestation of septoria, alternariosis, etc.) of phlox and other flower cultures, spraying with copper oxychloride (40 g per 10 l of water), sodium phosphate (75 g per 10 l of water).
The damage caused at this time by onion flies and biting scoops onion crops can be reduced by sprinkling 2-3 times (after 10 days) plants with 10% malathion (75 g per 10 l of water).
The iris rhizomes infected with bacterial rot and heter of wasps and ozra should be exposed, cleaned of rot and filled with potassium permanganate solution (30-50 g per 10 l of water). Conduct foliar top dressing with potassium chloride (100 g per 10 liters of water) and 2 times (after 12-14 days) with copper chloride (40 g per 10 liters of water).
Plant vegetation period
Throughout the summer, as various pests and diseases appear in the mass, fighter measures should be carried out. Against fungal diseases that cause spotting and plaque, spray copper chloride (40 g per 10 liters of water), a soap-soap emulsion (20 g per 10 liters of water), and treat powdery mildew with sodium phosphate (75 g per 10 liters of water). Against pests, gnawing leaves and flowers, sucking (aphids, thrips), you can apply 10% malathion (75 g per 10 l of water), 10% triphos (50-100 g per 10 l of water); ticks - 20% celtan (20 g per 10 liters of water).
Plants infected with viral diseases are immediately removed and destroyed. In wet years, they fight slugs. They lay the bait in shelters, sprinkle the soil with superphosphate (40-60 g per 1 m2).
The end of the vegetation of plants
To destroy the complex of pests and diseases, it is necessary to remove plant debris from the site in the autumn and dig the soil.
Storage, containers and equipment should be decontaminated with copper sulfate (500 g per 10 liters of water).
Store planting material at the recommended temperature and humidity. Planting stock should be carefully reviewed and selected only healthy before storage.