Philodendron - it’s very unusual!
His wild ancestor is known as Aronik or Arum, who gave the name to the family of Aronnikov (aroid). The name of the genus comes from the Greek words phileo - love and dendron - tree: philodendrons use trees as a support. In room culture, philodendrons are valued for the unusual and very diverse leaf shape, unpretentiousness and high decorativeness throughout the year. About the features of growing indoor philodendrons this publication.
- Botanical description of the plant
- Philodendron Care Tips - Briefly
- Features of growing philodendrons
- Types of Philodendrons
- Possible difficulties growing philodendrons
Botanical description of the plant
Philodendron (lat. Philodéndron, from Greek. phileo - love, dendron - tree) - a genus of plants of the Aroid family. Mostly climbing evergreens perennials attached to the support with the help of sucker roots. The stalk is fleshy, lignified at the base. The leaves are dense, leathery, of various sizes, shapes and colors. Under natural conditions, plants grow in length up to 2 meters or more.
The structure of the shoot in plants of the genus Philodendron is a mystery. Plants take turns developing leaves of two types: at first scaly, and after it - green on a long petiole. An inflorescence is formed inside the green leaf, and a lateral bud is formed in the sinus of the scaly leaf. The main shoot ends with an inflorescence, and where the stem part grows, bearing the following scaly and green leaves, scientists still do not know. Botanists have been unsuccessfully struggling to solve this riddle for about 150 years.
Philodendron Care Tips - Briefly
- Temperature. Moderate, about 18-20 ° C in the summer, in winter at least 15 ° C. Avoid cold drafts.
- Lighting. Bright place, protected from direct sunlight, light partial shade. Variegated forms require a little more light, but also in a semi-shady place. Climbing philodendron can grow in shaded places.
- Watering. In spring and summer, moderate, the soil should be moist all the time. In winter, watering is reduced, but the soil does not allow drying out, at which time the soil is only slightly moist. With an excess of watering, the lower leaves may turn yellow; if not enough, the tips of the leaves dry out.
- Fertilizer. From March to October, philodendrons are fed complex fertilizer for indoor plants. Top dressing every two weeks. Large tree-like vines can be added humus once per summer to the top layer of the earth when transplanting or without it.
- Air humidity. Philodendrons need to be regularly sprayed in the spring and summer, as well as in winter, if the heating system is nearby. Small plants take a shower several times during the summer. In large plants, leaves are regularly cleaned from dust with a damp sponge.
- Transfer. In the spring, young plants annually and after three to four years old ones. Soil: 2-3 parts of sod, 1 part of peat land, 1 part humus, 0.5 parts of sand. When growing large specimens in a too close pot, spots appear on the leaves, they turn yellow, the plants lag behind in growth.
- Reproduction. Philodendrons propagate by apical or stem cuttings. For rooting, it is better to use soil heating and cover with a film. Large creepers can be propagated by a sheet cut out with a heel.
Features of growing philodendrons
Philodendrons are plants of warm greenhouses. They are propagated by apical cuttings, as well as pieces of the trunk, but it is necessary that each has a kidney. Rooted at a temperature of 24-26 ° in the wiring box. If the cuttings (separated parts) are large, it is advisable to plant them directly in the pot. Cuttings are covered with a film to preserve moisture until a developed root system is formed. Sometimes pieces of the trunk, often without leaves, are placed under a shelf in a warm greenhouse, covered with peat soil, and often sprayed. As soon as the buds start growing, they are divided by the number of shoots that appear and are planted in a pot.
For planting, take an earthen mixture of the following composition: turf land - 1 hour, humus - 2 hours, peat - 1 hour, sand - 1/2 hour. The optimum temperature for growth is 18-20 ° C; in winter it is reduced at night to 16 ° C.
During the period of intensive vegetation, fertilizing with slurry is given and full mineral fertilizer is applied alternately every 2 weeks. Philodendrons also grow well in nutrient solution. Some philodendrons, in particular Ph. scandens, easily tolerate their content in a small sun and even a shaded place in the premises (in winter gardens).
Philodendrons can effectively drape walls and in some cases be used as ampelous (Ph. Scandens). In summer, plants are watered abundantly. In winter, less water is watered, but the earth is not brought to dryness. Plant transplants and their subsequent care are the same as for a monster.
A transplant is always a rather sharp intervention in the life of a plant, therefore it should be carried out at a time when the philodendron has the greatest reserve of vitality, that is, in the spring. Plants are transplanted as necessary, and this is often the case, because the root system of the aroid is well developed. On average, plants need to be replanted annually, with the exception of old specimens that are replanted every 2-3 years.
It is possible to determine if a philodendron needs a transplant by taking a plant out of the pot. If at the same time you find that the earthen lump is closely braided by the roots, and the earth is almost invisible, then a transplant is necessary. In this case, when caring for a plant, you can hardly limit yourself to watering and top dressing. If it is not transplanted into a larger pot with fresh soil, sooner or later it will stop growing.
In addition, transplantation is also necessary because over time, the composition and structure of the soil deteriorate: capillaries that conduct air are destroyed, an excess of mineral substances accumulates, which is harmful to the plant (a white coating forms on the soil surface).
From March to October, philodendrons are fed every two weeks with complex fertilizer for indoor plants. Rapidly growing plants can be fertilized once a week, and in winter fertilizer is applied monthly.
Large tree-like vines can be added humus once per summer to the top layer of the earth when transplanting or without it.
When feeding philodendron with fertilizers, it is important not to overfeed it, otherwise the tips of the leaves turn yellow or brown, the leaves themselves wither and become lifeless. If you have added a significant proportion of humus to the soil, do not feed it with other fertilizers for at least 1.5-2 months.
Quite often, philodendrons suffer from a lack of nutrients in the soil, if they are not transplanted for a long time and forgot to feed. In this case, the leaves become smaller, their tips dry and turn yellow, the plant lags behind in growth. Underfeeding will affect the thickness of the trunk.
Top dressing is carried out only after the earthen lump is watered and saturated with water, otherwise the plant may suffer from too high salt concentration in the soil.
If a plant can cope with a small excess of fertilizers on its own (you just need to stop feeding for a while), then with a very high content of minerals in the soil, the plant will need help: transplant the plant or wash the soil. To do this, put a pot with philodendron for a quarter of an hour under a stream of water in the sink. Water should not be too cold and should pass well through the drainage hole. You can also immerse the pot in a bucket of water to about the level of the soil and wait until all the soil is saturated with water, then remove the pot and let it drain. Repeat this process several times.
During the growth period of philodendron, top dressing should begin two to four weeks after purchase. If you planted a plant yourself, start feeding it only after the sprouts appear.
Young and recently transplanted plants in the first six months do not need additional feeding.
If the plant is in soil or a special soil mixture, it is not recommended to feed it strongly.
Apply top dressing of philodendron only in those cases when the plant is healthy.
Types of Philodendrons
Ph. melanochrysum (Ph. andreanum) - Philodendron golden black. Climbing creepers. Brittle shoots; internodes are short (aerial roots often leave them). The leaves of young plants are small, 8-10 cm long., Heart-shaped, with a copper-reddish hue; in adults - large, 40-80 cm long., oblong-lanceolate, bronze-green, whitish along the veins, along the edges with a narrow bright border, hanging. Petiole 50 cm long. Bedspread 20 cm long. It lives in tropical rainforests in the subequatorial region of the Andes in Colombia. Ornamental plant, widespread in indoor culture.
Ph. ornatum (Ph. imperiale, Ph. sodirai) - Philodendron decorated. Creepers are high, climbing, with strong trunk-like branches. Leaves in young plants are ovate, in adults heart-shaped, 50-60 cm long. and 35-40 cm wide., delicate, dark green, with a whitish pattern. Petiole 30-50 cm long., In small warts. Grows in tropical rainforests in southern Brazil.
Ph. bippinatifidum - Philodendron bicopus. Climbing creepers, with a woody smooth trunk, with traces of fallen leaves on the trunk. Leaves are arrow-shaped, twice pinnate, with 1-4 lobes, large, 60-90 cm long., Leathery, green, with a slightly grayish tint. The trunk of adult plants is thick, densely leafy. Ear 16-18 cm long., Purple on the outside, white inside. It is found in tropical rainforests, in swamps, in moist places in southern Brazil. Suitable for growing in rooms.
Ph. martianum. (Ph. Cannifolium, Ph. Crassum) - Philodendron Martius. The trunk is very short or missing. Leaves are heart-shaped, whole (resembling canna leaves), erect, 35-56 cm long. and 15-25 cm wide., Thick, pointed at the apex, at the base wedge-shaped or truncated, widened in the middle. Petiole is short, 30-40 cm, thick, swollen. Grows in tropical rainforests in southern Brazil.
Ph. eichleri — Philodendron Eichler. Climbing creepers, with a woody smooth trunk with traces of fallen leaves. Leaves are swept, triangular at the base, up to 1 m long. and 50-60 cm wide., dark green, dense. Petiole 70-100 cm long. It lives in tropical rainforests along the banks of rivers in Brazil.
Ph. angustisectum. elegans) - Philodendron graceful. Creepers are tall, not branching. Stem up to 3 cm in diameter., Fleshy, in cord-like accessory roots. Leaves are broadly oval, deeply pinnate, 40-70 cm long. and 30-50 cm wide .; lobes of a linear form, 3-4 cm wide., dark green above. The cover is 15 cm long., Cream, in the lower part is light green, pinkish-fringed. Grows in tropical rainforests in Colombia. Plant growth in height can be easily adjusted by removing the top of the trunk, which can be used on cuttings.
Ph. erubescens - philodendron reddish. Climbing creepers, not branching. The trunk is green-red, grayish in old plants; soft, brittle shoots. The leaves are ovoid-triangular, 18-25 cm long. and 13-18 cm wide., dark green, with pinkish edges; young dark red-brown. Petiole 20-25 cm long., Purple at the base. The cover is 1.5 cm long., Dark purple. The ear is white, fragrant. Grows on the slopes of the mountains, in tropical rainforests in Colombia.
Ph. ilsemanii - Philodendron Ilseman. The leaves are large, 40 cm long. and 15 cm wide., Oval to lanceolate-swept, unevenly streaked with white or grayish-white and green strokes, stripes. Brazil. One of the most decorative species.
Ph. laciniatum. pedatum. Ph. laciniosum) - Philodendron lobed. Climbing creepers, sometimes epiphytic plants. Ovate leaves (vary in shape of a triple dissected plate); upper lobe 40-45 cm long. and 25-30 cm wide., with 1-3 triangular-oblong or linear lobes. Petiole is the same length as the leaf blade. Bedspread 12 cm long. Inhabits tropical rainforests in Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil.
Possible difficulties growing philodendrons
Leaves "cry". The reason is too wet soil. Let the soil dry and increase the intervals between watering.
Stems rot. The reason is stem rot. Usually this disease manifests itself in the winter, when in conditions of excess moisture and low temperature favorable conditions are created for the reproduction of the fungus. Transplant the philodendron into another pot, raise the room temperature and limit watering.
Leaves turn yellow. If many leaves turn yellow, which, moreover, rot and wither, the most probable reason is waterlogging of the soil. If there are no signs of decay or wilting, then a possible cause is a lack of nutrition. If only the lower leaves of the philodendron turn yellow, pay attention to whether there are brown spots on them and how the new leaves look - if they are small and dark, then this is a sign of lack of moisture. Pale leaves with yellow spots indicate an excess of sunlight.
Leaf fall. The lower leaves of the philodendron always fall with age. If several leaves suddenly die off at once, then the cause may be a serious mistake in leaving.
Check the condition of the upper leaves. If the leaves become dry and brown before falling off, the reason is the air temperature is too high. This is a common nuisance in winter when plants are placed too close to batteries.
Bare below the trunk, small pale leaves. The reason is the plant lacks light. The plant does not grow in deep shade.
Brown dots on the bottom of the sheet. The reason is the red spider mite.
Brown, papery tops of lobes and leaf edges. The reason is the air is too dry in the room. Spray the leaves of a philodendron or place the pot in moist peat. If at the same time there is a slight yellowing, then the cause may be the tightness of the pot or lack of nutrition. Brown tops are an indicator of waterlogging of the soil, however, in this case, the leaves also turn yellow.
Leaves whole or slightly cut. The reason is that young leaves are usually whole and have no slits. Lack of openings on adult leaves of philodendron may indicate too low air temperature, lack of moisture, light or nutrition. In tall plants, water and nutrients may not reach the upper leaves - aerial roots should be deepened into the soil or directed into a moist support.