Fragrant whips of roses
Climbing roses occupy one of the leading places in vertical gardening, go well with small architectural forms, are indispensable in creating decorative columns, pyramids, arches, trellises, green walls of buildings, balconies, arbors.
© Jess Beemouse
These roses are grown in areas with a relatively mild, warm climate, where they do not need to be covered for the winter.. In the middle zone of Russia it is difficult to apply them on a large scale, but in personal plots and garden plots you can grow them in most of the non-chernozem, forest-steppe and steppe zones, but always cover them for the winter. Climbing roses, in turn, can also be classified. Different authors divide climbing roses in different ways and when describing varieties proceed from their own criteria.
In international practice, the following classification is usually applied:
The climbing group includes, first of all, real climbing or so-called climbing (Rambler), roses with long flexible creeping or arched-rising shoots (lashes) with a length of 1.5 to 5 m or more. Their shoots are bright green and covered with thin curved spikes. The flowers are small (2-2.5 cm in diameter), terry, semi-double or simple of various colors. The flowers are mostly weak-breathing and collected in inflorescences. Real climbing roses bloom very profusely, mainly once during 30-35 days in the first half of summer. The flowers are located along the entire length of the overwintered shoots. The leaves are small, leathery and shiny. Most varieties are quite winter-hardy, winter well under light, dry shelter. This group of roses came from related species of Vihurayna roses (R. Wichuroiana) and multiflowered multiflora roses (R. multiflora), native to East Asia. In the 19th century, hybrid forms of these roses were introduced into culture in Europe.
In the future, they were repeatedly crossed with tea, tea-hybrid, floribunda, remontannye. As a result of crosses and selections, modern climbing varieties with strong growth and long shoots up to 2-4 m were obtained. These are the so-called climbing roses (Climber), they are also called large-flowered climbing roses. Their flowering is plentiful and the flowers are larger than those of real climbing roses (over 4 cm in diameter). Flowers were collected in loose small inflorescences. By the shape of the flower, some varieties of this group resemble hybrid tea roses, many varieties bloom repeatedly. They are relatively winter-hardy and resistant to powdery mildew disease or are only slightly affected. This is the second variety in the climbing group.
And, finally, the third variety is climbing forms resulting from kidney mutations (Sport) obtained from hybrid tea, floribunda, grandiflora, i.e., from large-flowered bush roses. From parent varieties they differ only in strong growth and later entry into fruiting. They are called “klimimbings” and the climbing shape of the variety is indicated by the addition of the word Climbing to the variety name. In these varieties, even larger flowers are from 4 to 11 cm, single or in small inflorescences. In our country, “klimimbings” can be used in landscaping, mainly only in southern areas with milder winters. In the middle lane, they are severely damaged by coniotirium.
© Monica Arellano-Ongpin
Location: sunny and ventilated. Roses are light-loving plants, so it is best to plant them on the walls and supports of the southern and south-western exposure. Still, preference should be given to southern exposure; good lighting helps to ripen growth, which will bloom next year.
Landing: a strip of land with a width of 50-60 cm is enough. They are planted in 50 x 50 cm pits prepared in advance. If the pits are dry, they must be watered and brought in a day before planting - not less than half a bucket in each hole. In order for the bush to be strong and bloom profusely, after planting, the plant must be cut 15 to 20 cm from the soil level. Climbing roses used to decorate walls and other objects are planted at a distance of at least 45 cm from the landscaping object.
Care: starting from the second year after planting, curly roses are content with negligible care, consisting in rare but plentiful watering, top dressing and pruning. Faded branches are pruned to stimulate additional flowering. Roses are watered every 8 to 10 days. The soil around the plant is mulched with sawdust, humus, straw, grass. Cow dung, which is introduced during planting, has been used by plants for two years. In subsequent years, fertilizers, especially organic ones, are needed. In addition to manure, roses can be fed with mineral and complex fertilizers: TMAU (peat-nitrogen fertilizers), flower mix, etc. Four to five dressings are required during the growing season.
© Jess Beemouse
Curly roses need pruning. Its main goal is the formation of the crown, obtaining abundant and long flowering, maintaining plants in a healthy state. In addition, pruning helps to achieve continuous shoots of the object near which the plants are planted. When pruning, special attention is paid to the growth and development of vegetative shoots, since the flowering of climbing roses occurs on last year's growth.
With good care, roses over the summer period grow long shoots, up to 2-3.5 m. They are sheltered for the winter. In the spring of next year, only frozen and warmed shoots and the ends of the shoots on a strong outer bud are cut. The shoots that survived after wintering are first spread on the ground so that strong substitution shoots develop at the base of the bush, ensuring the flowering of the bush for the next year. After the young shoots of substitution reach a length of 50-70 cm, the old shoots on which flowering should take place this year are tied to supports. In the future, pruned roses are pruned once or twice depending on how these roses bloom. These groups of roses by the nature of flowering and shoot formation differ significantly among themselves.
The first form flowering branches on last year's shoots. Repeatedly they do not bloom. In exchange for faded shoots, the so-called main (basal) shoots, these roses form from 3 to 10 shoots of restoration (replacement), which will bloom for the next season. In this case, the basal shoots after flowering are cut to the base, like raspberries. Thus, bushes of single-flowering climbing roses should consist of only 3-5 annual and 3-5 two-year-old flowering shoots.
If climbing roses belong to the group of re-flowering, then flowering branches of different orders (from 2 to 5) form on the main shoots within three years, the flowering of such shoots weakens by the fifth year. Therefore, the main shoots are cut after the fourth year to the base. If at the base of these shoots many new strong shoots of recovery are formed (which usually happens when the roses are well looked after), then the main shoots are cut, as in the first group. In bushes with repeated flowering, it is enough to have from 1 to 3 annual shoots of restoration and from 3 to 7 flowering main shoots. Re-blooming roses are recommended to be pruned in early spring. The meaning of pruning is to leave a limited number of the strongest, youngest and longest branches on the bush. If the lashes are too long compared to the support, they must be cut.
It is important to remember that climbing roses bloom on overwintered shoots, which must be maintained to the full length, only the very tops with underdeveloped buds should be removed. When cultivated on a high agricultural background, climbing roses can form shoots of recovery in excessive quantities. This very thickens the bush, weakens flowering and makes shelter difficult for the winter. Therefore, for abundant flowering of climbing roses, they should be pruned and the number of shoots should be regulated.
When pruning varieties from different groups of roses, remember that flower buds are formed at different heights of axial shoots. On this basis, curly roses can be divided into three groups.
In plants of the first group, each wintering bud on last year's axial shoot, with the exception of the 5-10 lowest ones, differentiates into a flower. This phenomenon is characteristic of most varieties from the Vihurian and Multiflora groups. Therefore, varieties of roses from these groups can be cut depending on the height of the greened object.
In plants of the second group, flower buds are formed only in the upper and middle parts of the axial shoot, the lower buds remain vegetative. For the varieties of this group ‘Paul Scarlet Climber’, ‘Glen Dale’ and others, you can use high or medium pruning.
The third group includes plants in which only buds located in the upper part of the axial shoot turn into flowering ones, while the lower and middle ones remain vegetative. These are mainly varieties of roses from the Banks group according to L. Uleiskaya, requiring high pruning.
On an adult rose bush, as many old lashes are removed as new ones appear from the base.. For semi-climbing roses from the Cordes and Lambert groups according to L. Uleiskaya, reaching a height of 3 m, high or medium pruning is recommended. With regular low pruning, these plants can take the form of a bush.
Great attention is required to pruning large-flowered varieties. The length of their lashes should be proportionate to the size of the bush. If the bush is very strong, as, for example, in the ‘Kliming Gloria Day’ variety, it is necessary to leave long lashes, they should be shorter in the shorter bushes. If in this group of roses pruned branches are very short, then instead of flower-bearing shoots, only vegetative ones will begin to grow. Often varieties of this group do not bloom. To achieve their flowering, you need to slightly shorten the branches and tie them horizontally or obliquely.
Proper pruning and careful selection of varieties can provide almost continuous flowering of roses in your garden during the growing season.at. Along with pruning, an important role is played by the garter of climbing roses, which should provide an inclined, horizontal or spiral arrangement of branches, which prevents the growth of vegetative shoots and stimulates the development of flower.
© Jess Beemouse
Roses require shelter. It is important to remember one thing: between the roses and the shelter (film, roofing, etc.) there should be air space on top. Roses die not so much from frost as from soaking and warming during long winter thaws or in spring, when the covering material is compacted and does not allow air to pass through. It should be remembered that the preparation of roses for winter begins long before the onset of frost. Already at the end of August, it is necessary to stop watering and loosening the soil. At this time, it is no longer possible to feed roses with nitrogen, but it is necessary to add potassium top dressing to strengthen the shoot tissue. Shelter roses for the winter should only with the onset of steady temperature drops to minus 5-6 ° C. Small frosts not only do not harm roses, but even contribute to better ripening of shoots and harden plants. Premature shelter causes the plants to germinate and vomit due to lack of air. Shelter is carried out in dry weather. Climbing roses are removed from the support, cut out damaged or rotted shoots and cleaned of leaves. After this, they twist, tie the lashes with twine and pin them with metal or wooden hooks to the ground. It is advisable to put dry leaves or spruce branches under them. From above, shoots are covered with any covering material: dry leaves, spruce branches, wooden crates, etc.
Well propagated by summer and winter cuttings. The easiest way is green cuttings, most climbing roses give almost 100% rooting. Green cuttings begin in mid-June and end in early August. Cuttings are cut from flowering or flowering shoots with 1-2 internodes. The lower end is made oblique (at an angle of 45 °) directly under the kidney, and the upper end is straight away from the kidney. The lower leaves are completely removed, and the rest are cut off in half. The cutlery is planted in a substrate (in a mixture of earth with sand or clean sand) in a pot or box to a depth of 0.5-1 cm. Cuttings are covered from above with a glass jar or film and shaded from the sun. Watering is carried out without removing the film. Climbing roses usually root well without the use of growth substances. If it is known that the variety is poorly rooted, then the cuttings before planting are treated with an aqueous solution of heteroauxin (40-45 mg, or 0.5 tablets, per 1 liter of water) for 12-15 hours, immersing the tips of the shoots in a solution of 3 cm. treat with an alcohol solution (50 ml of 96% ethanol, 50 ml of water and 400 g of heteroauxin) for 5 seconds immediately before planting.
Only a small number of varieties from the group of large-flowered propagated by budding. It is carried out in August - early September by a sleeping eye in the root neck of a one- or two-year-old dog rose.
© Jess Beemouse
Snow White. The flowers are white, 12 cm in diameter, terry (45 - 50 petals) with a pleasant aroma. In inflorescences up to nine flowers. Bush up to 3 m tall, with dark green dense leaves. Suitable for landscaping low objects of various configurations. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Aelita. The flowers are white with a greenish tint, goblet, 6.5 cm in diameter, double (48 petals), fragrant. Bush up to 3 m high, with shiny small leaves. Repeats flowering. Suitable for landscaping fences, low structures, for group planting and cutting. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Belianka. The flowers are white, slightly creamy with a pink center, 7-8 cm in diameter, double (35-50 petals), fragrant. Bush up to 3 m high, with dark green dense shiny leaves. Repeats flowering and blooms very profusely. Suitable for landscaping walls, fences, altanok, as well as for cutting.
Girlish Dreams. The flowers are orange-pink to coral, 6 cm in diameter, double (25 petals), the edges of the petals are corrugated and cut, in inflorescences up to 30 flowers. The bush is up to 3 m high, the leaves are dark green. Suitable for landscaping low objects, effective in boles.
Red Lighthouse. The flowers are fiery red with an orange tint, saucer-shaped, 8.3 cm in diameter, semi-double (21 petals), up to 13 flowers in inflorescences. Bush up to 3.5 m tall, with shiny dark green leaves. Suitable for landscaping hedges, arbors, for single and group plantings and for boles. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Mishor Stars. The flowers are orange-red, 8 cm in diameter, semi-double (19 petals), single or in inflorescences (up to 12 flowers). Suitable for landscaping fences, pergolas, arches, arbors.
Orange Sun. The flowers are pale orange, beautiful in shape, 12 cm in diameter, densely doubled (95 petals), with a faint aroma. Bush up to 3 m high, with dark green dense glossy leaves. Suitable for landscaping fences, walls, hedges and for cutting. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Pink News. The flowers are pale pink, 7 - 8 cm in diameter, semi-double (15-20 petals), with a fruity aroma. Bush up to 3 m high, with tenacious shoots. Leaves are bright green, slightly corrugated. Suitable for landscaping pyramids, trellises, arches, pergolas, columns, as well as for boles.
Gagarin constellation. The flowers are fiery orange-red, 7 cm in diameter, double (30 petals), up to 13 flowers in inflorescences. Suitable for landscaping arbors, arches, walls, trellises and for single landings.
Varieties of foreign selection
Alberic Barbier. The flowers are white with a cream center of 6.2 cm in diameter, densely double (up to 145 petals), single or in inflorescences (up to six flowers), with a faint aroma. A bush up to 8 m high, with tenacious creeping shoots and shiny dark green foliage. Flowering is plentiful and long. Very often, flowering in the autumn is repeated. Suitable for all types of vertical gardening. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Albertin. The flowers are salmon-pink, 8 cm in diameter, double (33 petals), saucer-like, single or in inflorescences (up to seven flowers), with a strong aroma. The bush is up to 6 m high. The leaves are light green. Suitable for landscaping fences, arbors, pergolas, covered walkways, for boles. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Glen Dale. The flowers are white, in the buds are lemon yellow, goblet, 10 cm in diameter, terry (28 petals), fragrant. The bush is climbing, up to 3.5 m high. The leaves are dark green, dense, shiny. Flowering is long, moderate. Suitable for landscaping walls, arbors, trunks, hedges, pergolas. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Zodias. The flowers are carmine-pink, 3 cm in diameter, double (90 petals), cupped, up to 22 flowers in inflorescences. Climbing bush, 4 m high. Flowering is plentiful, repeats in some years. Suitable for landscaping slopes, pergolas, balconies, hedges, garlands, as well as for weeping boles. Resistant to pests and diseases.
Coronation. The flowers are bright carmine-red, 4.2 cm in diameter, terry (32 petals), cupped, up to 17 flowers in inflorescences. The bush is up to 8 m high. Flowering is very plentiful. Suitable for all types of vertical gardening.
New dawn. The flowers are pale pink with a salmon tint, 7.2 cm in diameter, semi-double (23 petals), with a pleasant apple smell, single or in inflorescences (up to 20 flowers). The bush is climbing, 3.4 m high, with dark green shiny foliage. Flowering is very plentiful and repetitive. Suitable for landscaping walls, hedges, terraces, arbors, pergolas, slopes and for single landings. In some years, is affected by powdery mildew.
Pests and diseases
Most often found on weaving roses:
Powdery mildew is caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa Lev. White spots appear on the leaves, which gradually grow. Powdery mildew rapidly develops in hot and humid weather, usually in late July - early August. Plant growth stops, flowering stops, and plant death may occur. As a preventive control measure, a 2-fold spraying with Bordeaux liquid is recommended: on sleeping buds after removing the shelter and on shoots growing up to 20 cm.
Coniotirium (Coniothirium wersdorffiae Laub) - cancer of the cortex, or “burn” of roses. Signs of the disease are found when removing shelter in the spring. Initially, red-brown spots are formed on the shoot bark, which, growing, gradually turn black and can cover the entire shoot with a ring. The causative agent of the disease is inside the tissue. Ringed shoots should be immediately cut with the capture of a healthy part of the shoot and burned. The fungus most intensively develops in the dark under the winter shelter of roses for the winter, especially at high humidity. Preventive measures include reducing the dose of nitrogen in the fall, feeding potassium fertilizers to strengthen shoot tissues, timely shelter and ventilation during winter thaws, timely removal of shelter in the spring, pruning and destruction of affected shoots.
Climbing roses are used in figured arches, arbors, pyramids, garlands, columns, pergolas, fences, altankas; for decorating walls of buildings, balconies. Particularly decorative compositions created from groups of varieties of climbing roses, as well as climbing roses on high stanchas ..
The idea of using shrubs and trees as a support for climbing roses is not a human invention, but a way of life of these plants in the wild. On a large tree, curly roses appear in all their magnificent magnificence. Not all trees and shrubs are suitable for use as a support for climbing roses. Since the rose grows very quickly, the support plant should be large enough and tall. Do not use plants with intensively growing and located near the surface of the soil roots, which are in strong competition with the roots of roses. We can recommend: broom, cirrus, hornbeam, mountain ash, apple tree, pear, mountain pine, yew, larch.