Methods for growing champignons: pros and cons
Of all the mushrooms that are grown in agriculture, champignons are undoubtedly the most popular. One can recall oyster mushroom, which is gaining popularity, or shiitake, indispensable in the east, but still it is champignon that prevails in restaurants, on supermarket shelves, in pizzerias and in kitchens. This is not surprising - the delicate white structure of the mushroom is quickly and easily prepared, it lacks the rigidity inherent in oyster mushroom. Champignons are equally well suited both for side dishes and for sauces and additives to meat, vegetables, fish, salads, cold and hot dishes and appetizers. They can be consumed fried, stewed, pickled, salted or raw - these mushrooms will always be on top. And the amino acids contained in champignons, macroelements (potassium, iron, phosphorus), vitamins A, C, group B, zinc, magnesium and iodine - make mushrooms not only tasty, but also very useful product.
Given all of the above, it can be assumed that interest in mushrooms as a food product will not weaken, but rather, on the contrary, consumer interest will increase, and this will lead to an expansion of production.
For growing champignons, even a previously used premises, for example, an abandoned farm, or unused vegetable stores, sheds (if this is cultivation for personal use), is suitable. Of course, it is recommended that the premises be refitted and disinfected.
One of the most popular ways to grow mushrooms is in special plastic bags with mycelium embedded in it champignons. This method has many advantages and, accordingly, many supporters. Firstly, bags with obsolete mycelium after harvesting are easier to change. Secondly, if the fungus is affected by rot or infection, it is always easier to remove the affected packets and thus avoid infection of the entire crop. And not only - because if the entire greenhouse becomes infected, you will have to quarantine the premises for some time and carry out disinfection, and this is a loss of a huge amount of time and money.
Another undoubted plus of “batch" mushroom cultivation is the possibility of replacing the bags in case of uneven ripening of the crop - already exhausted infertile mycelium after harvesting can be replaced gradually - as needed. Although mushrooms are not biologically related to plants - they are separated into a separate kingdom - but in their uneven growth they look like plants: for some unknown reason, in some packages, the mushrooms will necessarily develop faster than in others. Although they are in equal conditions.
The next advantage is tieredness. Packages can be placed on shelves, stands reminiscent of whatnots and hung on special devices. As a result, much more useful area will be involved.
Of course, as in any situation, there is a flip side to the coin - the inconvenience is that it’s hard to manually fill the bags with compost, but now you can buy ready-made bags (with mycelium and compost), or the manufacturer has mechanized systems for laying compost . Another inconvenience is that when placed vertically, it is inconvenient to use compost additives.
Container growing system champignon is suitable for large companies and manufacturers - this is how mushrooms are grown in America and Canada. The essence of the method is in specially treated wooden containers. Processing is carried out against decay and mold, which instantly affects a tree in a humid environment. As already noted, this method is not cheap, therefore, at such firms almost all processes are mechanized. With this method, the spread of diseases affecting fungi is practically excluded. The only drawback is the price of equipment and containers.
European way to grow champignons (sometimes called Dutch) - shelf growing. It assumes the availability of specialized expensive equipment, due to which cultivation turns into almost a completely mechanical process and eliminates heavy manual labor. The disadvantage of this method, primarily in expensive equipment, technological support and specially trained personnel who can work on such equipment. This method of cultivation is not suitable for small entrepreneurs. And with this method, it is necessary to especially monitor disinfection - because the infection that has occurred covers a minimum of the rack.
On the ridges
Growing in such a way on the ridges - A long-used and perhaps the most economical way that does not require specialized premises, expensive equipment. Compost is poured directly on the floor, and the mycelium is sown like seeds in beds. This method of cultivation is fraught with many drawbacks: the small use of the room (only the floor), the inability to conduct high-quality disinfection and, as a result, the possibility of infection of the mycelium and, when infected, the rapid spread of infection throughout the entire area of the garden.
Newer and more popular - "Briquette" method. Briquettes are easy to transport, they can be made up, and containers or on shelves. This is essentially a hybrid of several types of cultivation. And its convenience is that it is not necessary to fill the containers with compost - it can be purchased. Now there are many offers of this kind and you can pick up a good option.