Montbrecia, or Crocosmia - unrecognized gladiolus
Although this plant is rarely seen in gardeners, it can be said that montbrecia with their graceful inflorescences are excellent ornamental plants for the summer-autumn flower garden. They can be planted separately and in a group with other flowers. They look very impressive against a green lawn background. Bouquets of montbrecia with one or two branches of asparagus are incomparable in their beauty and elegance. How to grow unrecognized gladiolus in the garden, we will describe in the article.
- Botanical description of the plant
- Growing requirements - briefly
- Features of care for Montbrecia (Crocosmia)
- Landing Montbrecia (Crocosmia)
- Reproduction of Montbrecia (Crocosmia)
- Diseases and Pests
Botanical description of the plant
Montbrecia, or Crocosmia, the Latin name is Crocosmia, popular is Japanese gladiolus.
In the genus Montbrecia (Crocosmia) of the iris family, 50 species of these tuberous perennials from South Africa are known. Plants are very similar to miniature gladioli, only flowers and peduncles are more elegant. For what they are popularly called Japanese gladiolus. In floriculture commonMontrebia and hybrid form - montbrecia gardenobtained by the French breeder Lemoine in 1980 as a result of the crossbreeding of Montbrecia golden and Montbrecia Potsa.
The names Montbrecia, or Crocosmia, are used approximately equally. The third name - Tritonia is used much less frequently. Name Montbrecia (Montbretia) is given to a plant named botanist Ernest Cauber de Montbre and is considered obsolete. More modern nameCrocosmia comes from the Greek words “krokos” - “crocus” and “osme” - “smell”, because the flowers smell like crocus (saffron).
The corm in Montbrecia is small, covered with 2-3 layers of mesh membranes. Narrow xiphoid leaves, 40-60 cm long, are collected in a fan-shaped basal rosette. From 1 corm, 3-4 peduncles grow. An elegant thin stalk can reach a height of 100 cm, very branched.
Paniculate inflorescences consist of small (3-5 cm in diameter) star-shaped and funnel-shaped elegant orange-red or yellow flowers. The flowering is plentiful and long, summer-autumn - from July to September.
Growing requirements - briefly
Location: photophilous, requires an open location, otherwise the flowers may not appear.
The soil: prefers humus-rich, fairly moist soil. Water stagnation is unacceptable. The soil is prepared in the fall. On 1 m2 make 2 buckets of humus, 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium chloride, 100 g of slaked lime. In the spring they give nitrogen fertilizers (30 g / m2).
Care: during the summer, every 10 days they are fed with mullein infusion (1:10) and full mineral fertilizer (2-3 g / l), starting with the appearance of the 2nd leaf. During the period of bud formation, potash fertilizers (2 g / l) are added. Plants are abundantly watered once a week and periodically loosen the soil.
Features of care for Montbrecia (Crocosmia)
In central Russia, a species, relatively finely flowered montbrecia hibernates safely under a shelter of dry leaves or shavings with a layer of at least 20 cm with a film on top to protect against dampness during thaws. Moreover, Montbrecia overwintered in the soil is more powerful, blooms earlier and blooms longer. In the south of Russia, it winters without shelter. But it is better to dig up varietal large-flowered montbrecia for the winter, and to shelter in the south.
Corms are dug up as late as possible - if severe frosts did not strike, then in the second half of October, since they grow precisely at the end of the season. In dry weather, they dig up corms with a baby formed during the summer and, brushing off the entire “nest” from the ground, cut the stems and leaves at a height of 5 cm, then dry for several days.
Corms prepared in this way are sprinkled with dry peat, placed in boxes or paper bags and stored in the cellar at a temperature of plus 5-7 ° C.
Landing Montbrecia (Crocosmia)
In March, a month before planting, planting material is taken out and kept for several days in room conditions. Then Montbretia is prepared for planting: the “nests” are dismantled, the baby is separated, the roots and the remains of the stems with leaves are trimmed, dry shells are removed.
Before planting the corms and the baby for several hours, fill in with a warm 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). In addition to the disinfecting effect, the drug stimulates the germination of corms and root formation.
Montbreeding wintering in the ground are dug up and divided every three years.
Reproduction of Montbrecia (Crocosmia)
The plant propagates by corms, children and seeds.
Every year around 5–6 children are formed around one adult bulb, which bloom the very next year. At the same time, the mother bulb continues to bloom and form a new baby, and thus the plant multiplies quite quickly. Montbrecia is planted in late April, when the soil warms up to 6-10 ° C: large corms - to a depth of 6-8 cm (distance between plants 10-12 cm); baby - to a depth of 3-5 cm (5-6 cm).
Before planting, you can grow in pots and then plant with a lump of land in open ground in May-June. Children are separated in the spring and used for reproduction. Seeds reproduce easily. Sowing fresh, pre-washed seeds is desirable. With early spring sowing in closed ground, flowering occurs in the second year.
Diseases and Pests
Montbrecia is affected by the same diseases as gladiolus.
Fusarium (manifests itself in different ways and has several names: desiccation, gladiolus yellowness, core rot, dry rot). Fusarium is most characteristic of yellowing of the tips of the leaves, which progresses before or during flowering. Yellowness spreads between the veins, the leaves become striped, turn brown and die. With a severe defeat, the entire plant dries up. Spores of the fungus penetrate into the vessels of the roots and corm. Plants are easily pulled out of the soil.
In infected plants, the shape, size and color of the flower changes, leaves and peduncles bend. The baby is almost not formed. Affected bulbs darken, wrinkle. Most often, the defeat starts from the bottom. The development of fusarium is promoted by both drought and excessive humidity, thickened planting and disturbances in agricultural technology.
Grassy, or jaundice. With early infection of gladiolus, the disease manifests itself in yellowing of the ends of the leaves, which gradually spreads to the entire plant. Leaves become straw yellow, the plant dies prematurely. With lesions at a later date, no external signs of the disease are observed. By the time of planting, many kidneys appear on an apparently healthy bulb. After planting, chlorotic threadlike shoots are formed. These shoots do not develop and die after some time. The bulb becomes hard and stays in the soil for a long time without rotting.
The carrier of the disease are cicadas. Heat treatment of bulbs slightly affected by the disease at a temperature of 45 ° C for 15-20 minutes completely destroys the pathogen.
Thrips - a small sucking insect with an elongated body (its length is 1-1.5 mm). Thrips parasitizes on gladioli both during their growth and during storage. Sometimes during flowering, thrips strikes flowers so much that the latter are not able to bloom. Larvae and adult insects, piercing tissues, suck juice from leaves, flowers and bulbs.
At temperatures below + 12 ° C, thrips goes under the cover scales of the bulbs and winter there. Bulbs affected by thrips are covered with a sticky coating of juice in the winter and mummified. With a severe defeat, they do not emerge.
Medvedka - insect up to 5 cm long of dark brown color with chitinous coating. The bear damages the gladioli roots, bulbs and stems. It settles most often on moist soils, near water bodies, on peatlands and humus-rich soils. It leads mainly an underground lifestyle.
Those who still decide to grow montbrecia will be amazed by the beauty and grace of this flower and will become its constant adherents. And the appearance of montbrecia in the flower market will bring true pleasure to lovers and connoisseurs of beauty.