Root celery - “saving from ailments, adding strength”
The ancient Greeks believed that celery is a lunar plant, which is a source of a drink that kindles love. A magic drink with celery juice was drunk by Tristan and Isolde, whose love is captured in legends.
Wild forms of celery grow on the Mediterranean coast. They became the basis for the deduction by the Greeks of the first cultivated forms of this plant, which immediately belongs to two groups - spice-flavoring and vegetable crops. I came to Russia during the time of Catherine II and today there is no such farmstead wherever at least one of the types of celery was grown in the garden: leaf, petiole or root.
- Celery Description
- The chemical composition of celery
- The healing properties of celery
- Root celery cultivation
- Growing seedlings
- Seed preparation
- Soil preparation for seedlings
- Sowing seeds for seedlings
- Seedling Care
- Planting celery seedlings in open ground
- Open ground preparation
- Celery Root Care
- Top dressing
- Protection against diseases and pests
- Harvesting and storage
- Forcing root crops to fresh herbs
- Varieties of Root Celery
Celery is a two-year vegetable crop that is used as a spice-flavoring seasoning for dietary and meat dishes or as an independent vegetable for preparing first courses, juices, drinks. As a food culture, celery has been used since the 17th century, before that it mainly adorned flower beds, being considered an ornamental-deciduous plant.
Celery belongs to the umbrella with a well-developed aerial mass. The leaves are large, shiny, bright green in color, from several unequal pointed lobes. In the first year, root celery forms a rosette of leaves and root crops (underground storage organ) round or slightly flat, with nostril or dense pulp, and in the second one it expels a peduncle whose umbrellas contain seeds with a specific aroma. Celery blooms in June - July, the fruits in umbrellas ripen in August.
The chemical composition of celery
A strong characteristic aroma of the culture gives the essential oil contained in all organs of the plant. In seeds, its concentration is 5-6%. Celery roots and leaves contain vitamins “C”, groups “B”, “K”, “E”, “PP”, carotene. Celery has more than 6 organic acids, including coffee, sedan, oxalic, acetic, and chlorogenic. Strong antimicrobial properties of celery give sedanolide, sedan, chlorogenic, caffeic acid. Of the macronutrients, potassium accounts for 430 mg /%, phosphorus and calcium, respectively, 77 and 72 mg /%. Of the trace elements in the composition of plant organs include vital iron, manganese, and zinc. Rich in celery, flavonoids and other substances.
The healing properties of celery
In ancient times they said - celery saves from ailments and adds strength. He is considered a strong natural aphrodisiac. People use it for diseases of the kidneys, genitourinary system, gout, as a blood purifier for skin diseases. Celery essential oils are a good anti-inflammatory agent for gastrointestinal diseases. At home, freshly chopped leaves or a mixture of them with sunflower oil is used for cuts, purulent wounds and ulcers.
Root celery cultivation
General environmental requirements
Celery 1-2 and perennial summer culture. In the world there are up to 20 species. In culture, mainly 3 are cultivated - leaf, petiole and tuber. Refers to cold resistant. In natural conditions, it occupies moist and wetlands, therefore, at home cultivation, it needs to be adequately provided with moisture. Culture needs open sunny places. The vegetation period of celery ranges from 190-210 days and is grown through seedlings. Celery seeds are grown in the southern regions, usually of early varieties.
Celery seeds are very small, saturated with essential oils, so they sprout very slowly, quickly lose their germination. For seedlings, it is better to use fresh seeds. To speed up seedling production, the seeds are soaked for half an hour in water heated to +50 .. + 53 ° C, and then 2 days in warm. Warm water is changed 5-6 times a day. Swollen and hatching seeds are placed on a paper towel and dried to flow.
Soil preparation for seedlings
For sowing seeds, prepare a soil mixture of mature vermicompost and sand 1: 1. You can prepare a more complex mixture of peat, humus and sod land, taking each species, respectively, 6: 2: 1 part. The prepared mixture is scattered in boxes, leveled, moistened. Cut grooves of 0.5 cm through 7-10 cm.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Seeds are sown in the second decade of February. Sowing can be done in 2 ways:
- sow into grooves, previously mixed with fine sand,
- or, after 2 cm, make a small hole with a match, drop 2-3 seeds into them.
Top seeded mulch 0.5 cm with a layer of soil. The sowing is covered with a film, imitating a greenhouse. The box with sowing is placed in a warm place at +18 .. + 22 * C. The soil mixture is constantly moistened with a small sprayer.
After 12-14 days, friendly shoots appear. Boxes are transferred to a bright place and reduce the temperature to + 16-17 * C. Given the fragility and miniature seedlings, they are not watered in the first weeks, but only carefully sprayed. It can be carried out on a glazed balcony or other bright place with a temperature of +8 .. + 10 * C. Not less. With a large decrease in positive temperatures, the plants form a flowering arrow and there will be no root crop.
In the phase of formation of 2 developed leaves, seedlings are dived in separate pots or other containers. More often experienced gardeners do not pick, so as not to violate the root system of seedlings.
For prevention from diseases, you can sprinkle seedlings with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate, feed Kemira or ammonia 1-2 times. If the soil mixture was prepared correctly and sufficiently seasoned with fertilizers, then the seedlings are not fed. Seedlings are planted permanently at the age of 55-60 days. The plant has 4-6 leaves and a formed root system.
Planting celery seedlings in open ground
Celery seedlings are planted no earlier than the second decade of May. Good precursors for celery are nightshade, cabbage, beets, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin. Early varieties can be planted in the second turn after radishes, salads, onions on feathers and other early harvested crops.
Open ground preparation
Root celery needs fertile, loose soil. It does not tolerate fresh organic fertilizers, so it is planted after the predecessors that received manure or other organics. Light soils are dug from the autumn to 25-30 cm heavy swimming in the spring. If necessary, make 0.5 buckets of humus or mature compost and 2/3 doses of phosphorus-potassium fat. Accordingly, 20-40 g and 10-15 g per 1 square. m square. In early spring, deep loosening is carried out. Under the second presowing loosening, the rest of the mineral fertilizers are added to the soil - 10 g of phosphorus and 5 g of potash per 1 sq. m. Instead of autumn-spring application of mineral tuks, it is possible to introduce 30-50 g / sq. m of complex fertilizers - nitrofoski, azofoski, kemira and others.
Landing pattern ordinary or tape 2-3 ordinary. Seedlings are planted after 25-30 cm, so that the growing bushes do not obscure each other. With an ordinary landing, 50-60 cm of aisle are left. With a tape aisle in the tape, they have 30 cm and 25 cm in a row. When planting, the growth point of the crop remains on the surface.
Celery Root Care
Watering is carried out weekly. The soil must be constantly moist. Uneven watering causes cracking of the root crop, its ugly formation. With excessive watering on the upper part of the root crop, hidden in the soil, additional roots are formed. Before hilling, they must be cut with a sharp knife so as not to damage the root crop itself. If this technique is excluded, then the root crop will be completely covered with roots, and the flesh will be loose.
- The first top dressing is carried out 2-3 weeks after transplanting seedlings for irrigation. You can feed with nitrofos, Kemira luxury, mortar or other complex fertilizer - 15-20 g / linear meter.
- To obtain healthy root crops in 2 and 3 top dressing, nitrogen is not introduced or its dose does not exceed 5-10 g / sq. m landings. Potassium fertilizers contribute an increased amount of 25-30, and phosphate fertilizers 10-15 g / sq. m
Protection against diseases and pests
To protect celery from diseases and pests, only biological products can be used, the use of chemicals is excluded.
Celery is affected by white rot, bacterial rot, powdery mildew, leaf spot, scab and sclerotinia when storing root crops. The main fight against diseases is to comply with all agrotechnical rules during the growing season and storage of root crops.
Preventive spraying with biofungicides planriz, trichodermin, phytosporin, and in the cold wet years using the biological product phyto-doctor, will protect plants from a complex of diseases, especially when used in tank mixtures. Spray frequency and dilution rates are indicated in the recommendations. These drugs are harmless to humans, animals and insects.
Of the pests, carrots fly, carrot leaf flies, celery flies, aphids, and whiteflies most commonly damage celery. The following bioinsecticides are most effective in controlling the above pests: bitoxibacillin, verticillin, haupsin, boverin, fitoverm, lepidocide and others. Their combined use with biofungicides in tank mixtures enhances the effectiveness of action on pests and diseases.
You can use solutions of insecticide plants. But, care must be taken. Many plants are poisonous and kill not only pests. They are poisonous to humans.
Harvesting and storage
Celery root is harvested in late autumn. The plants are dug up and pulled out of the soil. Root crops are carefully released from adhering soil, cut roots and leaves so as not to damage the root crop (it will immediately begin to rot). Root crops are stored in raw sand in cellars and vegetable pits. Under optimal conditions, root crops are stored for 4-8 months.
Forcing root crops to fresh herbs
When preparing root crops for winter storage, some of them are used for distillation into fresh herbs. Tubers weighing up to 250 g are taken. Leaves from root crops are cut by 7 cm of a tree stump. After 30-40 days of distillation, you can cut green leaves for fresh use. During the winter-spring period from each root crop it is possible to carry out 3-4 times a leaf cut.
For distillation, root crops are planted tightly in containers with 12-16 cm sides. The soil around root crops is compacted. Planting is systematically watered. The temperature during the day is maintained at +15 .. + 19 * C, and at night +10 .. + 12 * C. When forcing top dressing is not carried out.
Varieties of Root Celery
Root celery by maturity is divided into groups of early, middle and late varieties.
- Early varieties for all regions: Apple, Root Gribovsky, Diamond, Cascade, Prague giant.
- Middle grades for all regions: Strongman, Albin, Giant, Egor.
- Late varieties. When grown, they are not afraid of frost: Anita, Maxim.
For central Russia: Root Gribovsky, Golden Feather, Anita, Apple.
For Siberian regions and the Urals: Apple, Gribovsky, Anita, Strongman, Egor, Yesaul, Russian size, Maxim.