Buzulnik - tongue of flame
The name of the plant comes from the Latin ‘ligularis’, “tongue”. Sometimes a plant is called among gardeners, and even when sold at fairs and shops. Before flowering, it looks like a flower bed of powerful decorative leaves, after flowering it begins to look like a bright orange island that immediately attracts attention and creates bright spots against other plants. If there is no separate clearing for the buzulnik, then it is necessary to plant it in the background, since the plant is powerful, tall. Good for mixborders. It looks very nice and feels good near ponds.
Buzulnik, or Ligularia (lat. Ligulária) - a genus of perennial grasses of the Asteraceae family, uniting about one hundred and fifty species of the Eurasian species.
Some species are used in horticulture as ornamental plants.
About 150 species are known growing in Europe, Asia and Africa. Several species grow in Western Asia, the Caucasus and Europe. Within the former USSR, 40 species grow. The greatest species diversity in Central Asia (15) and the Far East (13). On Sakhalin there are 2 species, on the Kuril Islands - 1 species (no common).
Perennial rhizome plants. The stems are straight, up to 120 cm tall. The leaves are large, up to 50 cm across, arranged in the next order. Inflorescences are baskets, collected in panicled, racemose or corymbose inflorescences, rarely single. Marginal flowers are reed, yellow, orange or whitish, arranged in one row; middle ones are tubular, yellow or brown. Achenes are oblong.
Location: buzulniki are shade-tolerant and hygrophilous plants, in the garden they develop better in partial shade, although they feel good in the sun when abundant and regular watering.
The soil: require nutrient-rich, moist soil. They grow on heavy, non-drained clay soils, and suffer temporary flooding.
Care: in spring, it is advisable to loosen and mulch the soil. In summer, care comes down to regular watering and garter inflorescences. If the plants are planted on fertile soil, they can not be fed. After flowering, inflorescences are removed if seeds are not needed, while plants increase the size and number of leaves, maintaining a decorative effect until mid-October. The aerial part is best cut off in the fall.
In winter, it is advisable to mulch the soil around the plants. In open areas on hot days additional watering is required. Buzulniki are not affected by pests and diseases. The only pests are slugs that eat young and even adult leathery leaves. Overwinter plants without shelter.
Reproduction: division of the bush and seeds that are sown in the spring. Seedlings bloom for 3-4 years. Plants are planted in spring, in the month of May, and in autumn, in September-October. If necessary, you can transplant in the summer, cutting off the aerial part. Of course, in this case it is not necessary to dream of a decorative effect. Division of the bush is produced in the spring. Landing distance from 50 to 100 cm.
Diseases and pests: Resistant to diseases and pests, but can be affected by slugs.
Cogwheel - Ligularia dentata
Homeland - China, Japan.
Spectacular plant up to 100 cm tall. The leaves are large, kidney-shaped, collected in a basal rosette. Inflorescences - baskets 7-8 cm in diameter, collected in panicled inflorescence. Reed flowers are light yellow, tubular - light brown. It blooms in August and September for 30 days. Bears fruit. In a culture since 1900. Winter-hardy, but in severe winters it can slightly freeze.
Varieties are available:
- Desdemona - with lilac-brown leaves and fiery orange flowers
- Othello - up to 90 cm tall with intense purple large leaves up to 50 cm across and tangerine-orange inflorescences up to 13 cm in diameter, blooms from early September for about 40 days.
Buzulnik Vorobieva - Ligularia vorobievii
Homeland - Far East.
Perennial, under favorable conditions, forms powerful bushes up to 1.2 m in diameter with peduncles up to 2 m in height. The leaves are thick, leathery, rounded, dark green. The flowers are large, bright yellow, collected in racemose inflorescences. Flowering in August. Seeds germinate within 14-42 days, unevenly at a temperature of about 15 degrees. They are photosensitive, so they are sown on the surface without closing.
Wilson's Buzulnik - Ligularia wilsoniana
Homeland - Central China.
The plant is up to 150 cm tall. The stems are straight, slightly branched. Basal leaves are large, bud-shaped, on long petioles. Baskets are yellow, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, numerous, collected in erect inflorescences. It blooms from July 35-40 days. Winter-hardy, but preventive mulching and shelter in the event of a harsh winter is desirable. In a culture since 1900.
Buzulnik Vicha - Ligularia veitchiana
Homeland - Western China.
Perennial plant up to 200 cm tall. Basal leaves are heart-shaped up to 40 cm long, sharp-toothed. Numerous flower baskets are yellow, collected in a spike-shaped inflorescence. Blossoms in August 35-40 days. Winter-hardy, but preventive shelter in case of a harsh winter is desirable. In culture since 1905.
Kempfer Buzulnik - Ligularia kaempferi
Homeland - Japan.
Perennial rhizome herbaceous plant. Leaves are numerous, rounded or oval up to 25 cm across, unevenly serrated, green. Petioles of leaves pubescent. Baskets are light yellow, up to 5 cm in diameter, on branched peduncles 40-50 cm long, collected in corymbose inflorescences.
The golden variety of this species (var. Aureo-maculata hort.) Is cultivated in open ground on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Perennial herb with beautiful, large, rounded-angular, bright green with golden spots, basal leaves on long stalks. Inflorescences are small, yellow. It blooms in May.
Large-leafed Buzulnik - Ligularia macrophylla
In the wild, it grows in Western Siberia, Central Asia and the Far East. It is found in moist meadows and along the banks of rivers and streams.
The lower basal leaves are long-leaved, elliptical, bluish, 30-45 cm long. Blossoms in mid-summer. Inflorescence baskets are yellow, numerous, collected in a brush-shaped panicle.
Flower stalk up to 150 cm tall. Winter-hardy without shelter. Good in the background of the mixborder.
Buzulnik palmate-lobed, or dunate - Ligularia x palmatiloba
An impressive plant up to 1.8 m tall and 0.9 cm in diameter. The lower leaves are large, rounded, deeply lobed. Large yellowish flowers in a vertical, loose racemose inflorescence. Flowering in July-August. The plant is demanding on soil moisture.
Buzulnik Przewalski - Ligularia przewalskii
Homeland - Mongolia, Northern China.
Perennial herb up to 150 cm tall. Differs in graceful, strongly cut sharp-pointed leaves on thin red-brown petioles. The baskets are small, yellow, collected in spike-shaped, narrow inflorescences up to 50-70 cm long, the tops of which are slightly sagging.
By flowering time, this is one of the earliest buzulniki: its flowering begins in late June and lasts for 30 days. It is recommended to plant on moist fertile soil. It looks best near ponds and large flower beds. Looks great with Aruncus ‘Zweiweltenkind’.
Buzulnik tangutsky - Ligularia tangutica
Homeland - China.
Sinakaliya tangutskaya (S. tangutica), known by the names Tigut ligularia (L. tangutica), or Tangut godson (Senecio tangutica), sometimes grown in botanical gardens. The spectacular plant, partly resembles the Przewalski Buzulnik (L. przewalskii), but has a tuberous root. The tuber forms stolons, and the plant thus easily propagates vegetatively. Small-branched stems up to 70-90 cm tall.
The leaves are openwork, deeply pinnate, dissected with narrow lobes. The flowers are small, in an extended inflorescence, yellow. It blooms in July-August. A very resistant plant that grows better on moist, sometimes heavy clay soils in shady places. You can propagate it with seeds, but self-seeding almost does not. Curtains should be limited from excessive sprawl.
Narrow-leaved Buzulnik - Ligularia stenocephala
Homeland - North China.
Close to the Przewalski Buzulnik. It differs in larger flowers and heart-shaped, sharply serrated leaves.
In culture, there is a hybrid between Ligularia przewalskii and Ligularia stenocephala, which was called ‘The Rocket’. He took signs of both parents: flowers up to 5 cm in diameter on straight dark peduncles up to 150-200 cm tall. Leaves are dense, gray-shaped with roughly serrated edges. In autumn, the leaves of this variety are painted in elegant purple-raspberry tones. Handsome in company with Rodgersia at the water's edge.
Buzulnik, Siberian ligularia - Ligularia sibirica
A plant widely distributed in Siberia and Central Europe. On the shores of reservoirs, grassy marshes, in bushes, on marshy, solonetzic, alpine and subalpine meadows.
Perennial plant 30-130 cm tall. The rhizome is shortened, the stems are straight, furrowed, at the base with fibrous remains of dead leaves, green, sometimes reddish in the lower part, bare or diffusely pubescent with brownish or light jointed hairs.
Rosette leaves are heart-shaped, ovate-cordate, rarely triangular-cordate or kidney-shaped, 4-23 cm long and 7-15 cm wide, dull or short-pointed at the apex, notched-dentate at the apex, glabrous or scattered pubescent with brownish hairs on the underside , the base lobes are usually dull, slightly diverging, the petioles are 1.5-3 times longer than the plate, at the base are widened in m. short vagina.
The lower stem leaves are similar to basal, but smaller, on shorter petioles, but with longer sheaths. The upper stem leaves are triangular or triangular-heart-shaped, along the edge with small teeth, on short petioles, expanded into a swollen vagina.
The inflorescence is oblong, simple, racemose from 5-50 baskets; stems under inflorescence and peduncles pubescent with short brown hairs, often mixed with thin white hairs; bracts ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or linear, long-pointed, 2.5-5 cm long. Baskets with reed flowers 2.5-4.5 cm in diameter, drooping when flowering.
The wrapper is bell-shaped, 9-11 mm long and 7-12 mm wide, glabrous or slightly cobwebly pubescent, often with an admixture of multicellular hairs, at the base with 2 lanceolate-linear or linear leaflets, equal in length to the wrapper or slightly shorter; its outer leaves are linear-lanceolate, the inner ones are lanceolate or broad-lanceolate, with a wide membranous border.
Reed flowers are yellow, including 7-11, 10-20 mm long and 3-5 mm wide. The corolla of tubular flowers is 7.5-8.5 mm long, with an expanded narrow-bell-shaped part, 4.5-5.5 mm long. Crest yellowish or brownish, about 6 mm long. Achenes are yellowish-brown, 4-5 mm long. It blooms from July to early September. Propagated by seeds and root cuttings.
Fischer Buzulnik - Ligularia fischeri
Siberia, the Far East, Mongolia, China, Japan. In wet meadows, in sparse forests, in bushes.
Perennial plant 30-150 cm tall. The rhizome is shortened, the stems are straight, simple, furrowed, at the base with fibrous remains of dead leaves, pubescent with brownish curly multicellular hairs. Rosette leaves are heart-shaped, heart-shaped, kidney-shaped, less often almost spear-shaped, 12-23 cm long and 10-25 cm wide, at the apex rounded or shortly pointed, on thin long petioles.
The lower stem leaf is similar to rosette; medium - smaller, pointed, on short, winged, stalk-bearing petioles; the uppermost ones are small, sessile, with a stalk-bearing base.
Buzulnik Hessey - Ligularia x hessei
It is a hybrid of cogwheel and Wilson (Ligularia dentata (A. Gray) H. Hara x wilsoniana (Hemsl.) Greenm.).
In appearance, this hybrid is closer to the toothed buzulnik - baskets are collected in a large corymbose, but more loose inflorescence. Chamomile flowers are about 5 cm in diameter. The leaves are heart-shaped, triangular, the bush is dense, powerful, with a diameter of more than 1 m and a height of more than 2 m. Buzulnik Hessey blooms in August for 30-40 days. It has varieties that differ in height, color of foliage, peduncles and the shape of inflorescences: ‘Laternchen’, ‘Gregynog Gold’.