Oak - a symbol of power and longevity
There are some interesting facts about oak: At a Paris exhibition in 1900, oak logs were cut from 485-year-old oak 31 meters high and 169 cm in diameter. This oak was felled in the Bolshesursky forest dacha of the Kurmysh forestry in the Simbirsk province, that is, on the territory of modern Shumerlinsky forestry of the Chuvash Republic.
And in 1861, in the Yadrinsky district of the Kazan province, an oak tree was cut “50 feet long” (that is, 15 meters high) and “48 tips in the upper cut” (213 cm in diameter). This tree was counted 500 years old, at that time it was completely fresh, healthy and still growing in volume ...
Oak was a sacred tree of many peoples, including the ancient Slavs and Celts, it was worshiped as a deity. Today, he remains a symbol of courage and endurance, and not just, so to speak, “impenetrability” ... Incidentally, to see in an dream an oak tree strewn with acorns - to well-being and career growth.
Oak (Quercus) - a genus of deciduous or evergreen trees of the beech family. The leaves are alternate, simple, pinnatipartite, lobed, serrated, sometimes whole-edge. Oak flowers are small, nondescript, same-sex, monoecious; stamen - in long drooping catkins, pistillate - single or several, sedentary or peduncle. The fruit is a single-seeded acorn, partially enclosed in a cup-shaped woody bun.
Oak grows slowly, at first (up to 80 years) - stronger in height, later - in thickness. Usually forms a deep rod root system. Gives copious growth from a stump. Photophilous. Some types of oak are drought tolerant, quite winter-hardy, and less demanding on soils. Begins to bear fruit from 15-60 years old, in open places earlier than in plantations. Propagated mainly by acorns. For sowing, use acorns collected in the same year, because they quickly lose germination. There are about 450 species of oak in the temperate, subtropical and tropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia - 20 (according to other data, 11) wild species in the European part, in the Far East and the Caucasus; 43 oak species are grown in the culture.
Of greatest importance in forestry English oak, or summer (Quercus robur), - a tree up to 40–50 m high and 1–1.5 m in diameter. The leaves are elongate obovate, with 5–7 pairs of short lobes, on petioles up to 1 cm long. Acorns 1–3 on the peduncle. Blossoms at the same time as leaves bloom from 40-60 years. Fruits abundantly every 4-8 years. With lateral shading, it grows quite quickly, but requires good lighting from above. It survives up to 400-1000 years. Distributed in the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus and almost throughout Western Europe. In the northern part of the range, it grows along river valleys, to the south reaches the watersheds and forms mixed forests with spruce, and in the south of the range - pure oak groves; in the steppe zone it is found along ravines and gullies. One of the main forest-forming species of broad-leaved forests in Russia.
Close to the oak oak Rock Oak, or winter (Q. petraea), with almost sedentary (2-3) acorns, found in the west of the European part of Russia, in the Crimea and in the North Caucasus. In the eastern part of the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia grows Georgian oak (Q. iberica) with leathery leaves and sessile (1-2) acorns; in the alpine zone of these areas is growing Coarse Oak (Quercus macranthera) with densely pubescent shoots and acorns sessile or on a short peduncle. The main species of valley forests of the East Caucasus is Long Oak (Q. longips) An important forest-forming breed of the Far East - Mongolian Oak (Q. mongolica) - frost and drought-resistant tree.
Oak wood has high strength, hardness, durability and a beautiful texture (sectional pattern). Used in shipbuilding, underwater structures, as does not give in to decay; It is used in car building, in furniture, carpentry, cooperage, building houses, etc. Bark of certain types (Cork Oak - Q. suber) gives the cork. Bark and wood contain tannins (tannins) used for tanning leather. The dried bark of young branches and thin trunks of English oak is used as an astringent in the form of a water decoction for rinsing in inflammatory processes of the oral cavity, pharynx, pharynx, as well as lotions in the treatment of burns. Acorns go to a coffee substitute and to feed for pigs and some other agricultural animals. Many species, for example Chestnut oak (Q. castaneifolia), bred in gardens and parks as ornamental plants.
Oak acorns, unlike the seeds of the vast majority of our other trees, do not retain germination upon drying and long-term storage at room temperature. Therefore, it is necessary either to sow them in the fall before snowfall and freezing of the soil, or to provide them with special storage conditions. Autumn sowing is the simplest, but with it there is a serious risk of damage to part of the acorns by rodents.
For spring sowing oak acorns must be properly preserved. The best storage conditions are created at low (about 0 ° or slightly higher) temperature, high humidity and moderate ventilation. Acorns can be stored in the basement, in which potatoes are well preserved in winter; you can also dig them into the soil in the autumn to a depth of at least 20 cm, covering with a sheet of waterproof material on top, leaving a layer of air between this sheet and acorns and providing protection from mice. In any case, healthy acorns without external damage should be laid for winter storage, preferably harvested in dry weather and dried at room temperature for a week. Any special preparation of seeds that survived the winter before sowing is not required.
Before sowing, evaluate the quality of acorns by opening several of them. Live oak acorns have yellow cotyledons, and at their junction with each other there is a live (yellow or red-yellow) embryo. Dead acorns inside are black or gray. By external signs, it is not always possible to distinguish living acorns from the dead. Soaking acorns in a container of water gives good results - dead acorns mostly float, living mostly drown (if there are many acorns, this method of separating the dead from the living can be recommended, but a small part of the living acorns will be lost).
If you were unable to stock up on acorns from the fall, then in some years (after a large harvest of acorns and under the condition of "crop failure" of mice, and if the winter was not very frosty), you can pick up alive and spring sprouting acorns in the nearest forest or park. It is necessary to collect sprouting acorns in early spring, almost immediately after the snow melts, otherwise you will find damaged roots in many acorns. Harvested oak acorns must either be sown immediately or stored until sowing so that the roots do not dry out (for example, mixed with wet leaves in a plastic box, put in a refrigerator or a cold basement). Even with short-term storage, care must be taken to prevent germinating acorns from becoming moldy (immediately throw away damaged ones) and ensure their ventilation. The faster you can sow acorns collected in the spring, the greater part of them can develop into seedlings.
When sowing acorns, mark parallel furrows on the bed at a distance of 15–25 cm from each other. Put the acorns in the furrows at the rate of 15-50 pcs. per 1 m of furrow length, depending on the quality and size (if the acorns are large and almost all live, then they should be laid out less often, if small and with a large proportion of dead and dubious ones are thicker). If you plan to plant annual oak seedlings in a permanent place, then acorns should be sown even less often - at a distance of 7-10 cm from each other (this will ensure the maximum growth of each tree). Press the acorns into the bottom of the furrow so that they are at a depth of 2-3 cm relative to the surface of the soil in spring planting and 3-6 cm in autumn. After that, level the furrow, covering the acorns with earth.
Acorns sprout for a very long time. First, they develop a powerful root, reaching a length of several tens of centimeters, and only after that does the stem begin to grow. Therefore, oak sprouts can appear on the soil surface only a month and a half after the start of germination. Do not rush to conclude that your oak trees are dead, and dig up the bed with crops (as the experience of novice amateur foresters shows, this happens). If in doubt, try digging up a few acorns. If their roots have grown, then the acorns are alive.
Oak seedling care
Oak seedlings suffer much less from weeds and drying out of soil than shoots of conifers (due to the supply of nutrients in the acorn, large roots and leaves immediately develop). Nevertheless, always try to keep the crops clean from weeds and provide watering in the event of severe drought, especially if you want to get large seedlings in one year. Stop any additional watering about a month and a half before the time when massive leaf fall begins in your area - this will allow oak seedlings to better prepare for wintering (too late growths in oak often freeze out in winter).
In summer, oak seedlings are often affected by powdery mildew - a fungal disease. Powdery mildew is not able to kill oak seedlings, but can significantly reduce their growth. With a strong development of powdery mildew (if a white coating will cover more than half of the area of all leaves), the seedlings can be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or a 1% suspension of sulfur. Oak seedlings can be grown for two years in one place without transplanting, and can be transplanted in the "school" for the second year. The second method is preferable because it allows you to create a more compact and branched root system that suffers less when transplanted to a permanent place (in two-year-old seedlings grown without transplanting, the length of the main root can be more than a meter, and it is almost impossible to transplant them without damaging the root).
Oak seedlings should be transplanted to the “school” in the spring, preferably as early as possible, so that the root system damaged during the transplantation can partially recover before the leaves open (it is also important that the soil is still moist during transplantation). When transplanting, trim the main root of each oak seedling at a distance of 15-20 cm from the place where the acorn was located (for most seedlings, the remains of the acorn are still visible in the second year). This will form a more compact root system. You can not cut the main root, but in this case it will be very difficult to dig out already two-year-old seedlings without serious damage to their root system.
In the "school" arrange rows of seedlings at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other, and seedlings in a row - after 12-15 cm. When planting under each oak seedling, make a hole with a stake or shank of a shovel with a depth of 20-25 cm (the depth of the hole should be such that when the seedling is planted, the place of attachment of the acorn is 2-3 cm below the surface of the soil). Insert seedlings into holes (the main root of oak seedlings, unlike coniferous roots, is solid and straight and can be inserted into holes without problems). Then fill the pits with earth and compact it with your hands so that the earth fits snugly to the roots of the seedlings.
Transplanted oak seedlings in the first weeks after transplantation suffer greatly from damage to the roots - the leaves bloom rather slowly, and the growth of shoots is relatively small. Nevertheless, by the middle of summer, the normal development of seedlings is restored, and by autumn, as a rule, large and quite suitable for planting in a permanent place seedlings (30-50 cm high) are obtained. If the size of the seedlings leaves much to be desired by autumn, then only the largest ones can be selected for transplanting, and the rest left in the “school” for another year.
If you are replanting annual oak seedlings to a permanent place (this is quite possible if planting is done on areas with low grass cover or on plowed soil), then do not prune the main roots of the seedlings - try to keep as much of their length as possible. The root system of an annual oak seedling is represented mainly by a long and straight rod root with weak and short lateral roots, so for a transplant it is enough to make a narrow hole corresponding to the depth using a stake or a shovel handle.
Types of Oak
English oak (summer, English, or ordinary) - Quercus robur
It is found in nature in the European part of Russia, Central and Western Europe. Very powerful tree up to 50 m tall, in closed stands with a slender trunk, highly cleared of branches, with single plantings in open places - with a short trunk and a wide, spreading, low-planted crown. Lives 500-900 years.
The bark on the trunks up to 40 years old is smooth, olive-brown, later grayish-brown, almost black. The leaves are alternate, at the top of the shoots brought together in bundles, leathery, oblong, obovate, up to 15 cm long, with an elongated apex and 3-7 pairs of blunt, lateral lobes of unequal length. The blades are whole-edge or with 1-3 teeth, at the base of the leaf blade often with ears. Leaves on top are shiny, bare, dark green, lighter underneath, sometimes with sparse hairs. In spring, the oak blossoms late, one of the last among our trees. Oak blossoms in April-May, when it still has very small leaves. Flowers unisexual, monoecious, very small and nondescript. Male or staminate flowers are collected in peculiar inflorescences - long and thin, yellowish-greenish hanging earrings, resembling hazel earrings. Acorns up to 3.5 cm, 1/5 covered by a plume, ripen in early autumn.
Grows slowly, the highest growth energy in 5-20 years. Medium photophilous, thanks to a powerful root system windproof. Excessive waterlogging of the soil does not tolerate, but withstands temporary flooding up to 20 days. It prefers deep, fertile, fresh soils, but is able to develop on any, including dry and saline, which makes it indispensable in the green construction of many regions of Russia. It has high drought and heat resistance. One of the most durable breeds, separate sources indicate a life expectancy of up to 1,500 years.
It has powerful energy. Oak in Russia was considered a sacred tree. In springs located in oak forests, the water has an excellent taste and is particularly clean.
Propagated by sowing acorns, decorative forms - grafting and green cuttings. It is well renewed by shoots from the stump. Acorns cannot stand drying; if they lose even a small part of the water, they die. In the heat, they easily decay; they are very sensitive to cold and frost. This fact presents a certain difficulty for preserving acorns under the seeds. In nature, there is no such problem: acorns that fell in the forest in late autumn winter in a moist litter of leaves under a thick layer of snow, which protects them both from drying out and from frost. Germination of an acorn resembles the germination of a pea: its cotyledons do not rise above the surface of the soil, as in many plants, but remain in the ground. A thin green stalk rises up. At first it is leafless, and only after some time small leaves appear on its top.
Red Oak (Quercus rubra)
It is found in nature along river banks, where there is no stagnation of water in the soil, north of the 35th parallel of the North American continent, up to Canada. Tree up to 25 m high.
A slender tree with a dense hipped crown.
The trunk is covered with a thin, smooth, gray bark, cracking in old trees. Young shoots are reddish-felt, annuals are red-brown, smooth.The leaves are deeply deep, thin, shiny, up to 15-25 cm, with 4-5 pointed lobes on each side of the leaf; when blooming, they are reddish, in summer they are slightly green, lighter from below, in autumn, before falling off, in young trees - scarlet red , the old ones are brownish brown. Blossoms at the same time as the leaves bloom. Acorns of spherical shape, up to 2 cm, are red-brown, as if chopped from the bottom, in contrast to the English oak, they ripen in the autumn of the second year. Fruits steadily and abundantly from 15-20 years. At a young age, grows faster than European oaks.
It is frost-resistant. Medium-loving, easily tolerates lateral shading, but prefers full coverage of the crown top. Drought tolerant. It is wind-resistant, not very picky about soil fertility, can withstand even an acid reaction, however, does not tolerate calcareous and moist soils. Resistant to pests and diseases, including powdery mildew - the scourge of our oaks. It has high phytoncide properties. Due to its high decorativeness, resistance to adverse environmental factors, and magnificent autumn decoration, it deserves the widest use in green construction, for creating single and group plantings, alleys, massifs, and casing of roads and streets.
Fluffy Oak (Quercus pubescens)
It is found in nature in southern Crimea, northern Transcaucasia, southern Europe and Asia Minor. Tree up to 10 m tall. Durable
Significantly inferior in size to previous species, with a low, winding trunk and a wide crown, sometimes even a shrub. Young shoots are very pubescent. Leaves 5-10 cm long, very variable in shape and size, with 4-8 pairs of blunt or pointed lobes, dark green above, bare, gray green below, pubescent. The scales of the cocks surrounding the acorn are also fluffy.
It grows slowly, light and thermophilic, lives on dry rocky slopes and soils containing lime. It tolerates a haircut. A valuable species for green building in arid areas, growing on rocky soils where other species do not develop. Perfect material for tall hedges and curly, cropped shapes.
White Oak (Quercus alba)
Homeland - East North America. It grows in forests along with other types of oak and hazel, on various soils, but better on deep, rich, well-drained, limestone; in the north of the range it extends no higher than 200 m above sea level. sea, in the south up to 1500 m above sea level seas.
Large beautiful tree up to 30 m, with powerful spreading branches forming a broad, tent-like crown. Shoots are bare, the bark of the trunk is gray, cracking shallow. It is remarkable for very large, oblong-oval leaves, up to 22 cm, with 5-9 blunt lobes; when blooming - bright red, in the summer - bright green, with a whitish-gray underside. In autumn, leaves turn dark red or violet-purple. Acorns up to 2.5 cm, a quarter covered in plus. Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand. In the fall, they are sown immediately after harvesting and air drying. Seed germination persists until next spring. Ground germination of 80 - 85%. Depth of c. 5 - 6 cm.
Swamp Oak (Quercus palustris)
Homeland North America.
A slender tree is up to 25 m tall, in youth with a narrow pyramidal, later - with a widely pyramidal crown. Young shoots are thin, hanging, reddish-brown. The bark of the trunk is greenish-brown, remains smooth for a long time. Leaves up to 12 cm long, with 5-7 serrated lobes, 5-7 deeply cut, almost to the middle of the leaf, bright green above, lighter below, with tufts of hairs in the corners of the veins. In the fall - bright purple. The acorns are sessile, almost spherical, up to 1.5 cm, 1/3 covered in plussa. In the fall with. seeded after collection and air drying. Ground germination with. 80 - 90%. 5 - 6 cm.
It grows quickly, less frost-resistant than red oak and northern oak. More demanding on soil and its moisture, as in nature it grows on deep, moist soils of river banks and swamps. It tolerates the conditions of the city. Looks great in single, group and alley landings, along the banks of water bodies. In culture since the mid-18th century. It grows in parks of Ukraine (Chernivtsi), Belarus, Voronezh region. In St. Petersburg, it freezes.
Loosestrife Oak (Quercus phellos)
Wildly grows in eastern North America.
A beautiful deciduous tree up to 20 m tall, with a slender trunk and a wide-round (in his youth pyramidal) crown. It is remarkable for its original shiny green leaves resembling willow leaves (up to 12 cm long with 2 cm wide). This similarity is further enhanced in young leaves, very pubescent from below. In autumn, the leaves turn dull yellow.
It is characterized by rapid growth, photophilous, unpretentious to the soil, tolerates temperature drops to -23 ºС. Used in single and group landings. In culture since 1680.
Stone Oak (Quercus ilex)
Homeland Mediterranean, Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor.
Evergreen tree up to 25 m tall, with a smooth dark gray trunk and a dense, wide-spreading crown. Shoots are grayish-felt, leaves are small, up to 8 cm, highly variable in shape, leathery, shiny, dark green, yellowish or whitish-pubescent below. Acorns ripen in the second year.
Storage of freshly picked acorns in trenches is recommended. The permissible dry storage period is until the coming spring. Acorns are stratified in moderately wet sand for 2–3 months at 2–5 ° C, then sown in greenhouses or ridges, where they germinate for 20–30 days at 0–15 ° C. 4 - 7 cm.
It grows quickly, is quite shade-tolerant, hardy, tolerates temperatures up to -20 ° C without damage. Drought tolerant. It grows on dry rocky slopes and any type of soil. It tolerates a haircut, durable. Valuable, beautiful breed for park construction in the south of Russia. It is good in group, alley and street plantings, in regular gardens - for creating dense high hedges and high walls, for which its small-leaved forms are suitable. In culture since 1819.
Chestnut Oak (Quercus castaneifolia)
Wildly grows in Armenia, the Caucasus and Northern Iran. It is listed in the Red Book of the USSR. It is protected in the Hyrcanic reserve. Forms clean or mixed with other hardwood forests on the ridges of ridges. Photophilous mesoxerophyte.
A beautiful tree up to 30 m high with a slender trunk, the bark of which remains smooth for a long time, with a broad hipped crown and large leaves resembling the leaves of a sowing chestnut, up to 18 cm long, with large, sharp, triangular teeth. Top leaves are dull, dark green, almost bare; finely pubescent below, grayish-white. Acorns up to 3 cm, 1/3 covered by a plume.
It grows relatively quickly, medium frost, not drought tolerant enough. It is good in alleyways, group and single plantings of parks and forest parks. Suitable for culture in the southwestern and southern parts of Russia, on the Black Sea coast. In a culture since 1830.
Large Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)
North American species, growing in the form of a tree up to 30 m high, with a thick trunk and a sprawling, tent-like crown. The bark on the trunk is light brown, cracking. Leaves are obovate, oblong, up to 25 cm long, deeply lobed; shiny above, dark green, whitish green below, pubescent, in the fall they acquire a spectacular yellow-brown color. The acorns are oval, large, up to 5 cm, 1/3 covered by a plus.
Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand in the basement. In autumn, the seeds are sown after collection and air drying. Seeding depth 5 - 6 cm.
In terms of growth rate, it is not inferior to the oak oak; frost resistance is close to it and to red oak, but more moisture-loving than these species. Decorative, used in green building, like other types. In culture since 1826.
Oak Diseases and Pests
The most dangerous diseases of wood plants. Infectious diseases affecting wood are divided into two groups. Non-rot diseases include cancer ulcers and tumors, vascular diseases of trunks and branches, necrosis of measles and sapwood. Diseases of this group affect the most important tissues of trunks and branches and, when developed strongly, lead to drying out of the trees. Cancer ulcers and tumors develop and spread slowly - they are usually caused by fungi and bacteria. Vascular diseases develop and spread rapidly and can cause trees to dry out over several years or months. Necrosis of trunks and branches can also form extensive foci of drying out. Their distribution is ensured by the ability of pathogens to accumulate a huge amount of infection in the dead tissues of affected trees. The causative agents of necrosis are also semi-parasitic imperfect and marsupials, sometimes bacteria. To rot diseases include rot of wood branches and trunks, root and root rot.
By autumn, yellowish or pinky balls - galls - the size of a small cherry often develop on oak leaves. They look like tiny apples of the correct spherical shape.
Gauls - painful growth of leaf tissue. Their appearance is to blame for the insect gall midge, similar to a very small fly. Gallitsa with a thin sharp ovipositor punctures the skin of the leaf and lays an egg there. Some time after that, a "ball" grows on the sheet. If such a ball is broken in late autumn, in the middle of it you can find a small white worm - a gall midge - or an adult insect. In some years, oak leaves are literally dotted with galls - on each leaf there are several pieces.
Gauls are sometimes called ink nuts. This name is not accidental. Our ancestors at the time of Pushkin used them to make black ink. How to get ink this way? It is necessary to prepare a decoction of nuts and add a solution of iron sulfate to it. Merging two slightly colored liquids, we get a completely black liquid. This chemical “trick” is easy to explain. The gall contains many tannins, and they have the ability, when combined with iron salts, to give a dense black color. The same can be done with tea infusion (it also has a lot of tannins). If you add a few drops of a yellowish solution of ferric chloride to a glass of weak tea, the liquid becomes completely black.
Leaf-eating and stem pests, and fungal diseases are the most important factor enhancing the drying of oak stands. Violation of the ecological balance of oak phytocenoses, especially in oak forest monocultures, leads to violations of the water regime of the territories, changes in light and temperature conditions in the plantation, and all together - to the formation of conditions more favorable for the development of pests and diseases.
Oak is damaged by a huge number of pests and diseases. Different authors give different figures for the number of pests and diseases that damage the oak. In the Tellerman forest, 184 species of foliage pests were identified (Molchanov, 1975). Among the most common pests that damage foliage, it is worth mentioning: 5 species of silkworms, 5 species of scoops, 6 species of moths, 8 species of moths, 8 species of sawflies, 2 species of leaf moths, 11 species of nut growers, 2 species of leaf-sheaths, 5 species of weevils, 2 species hermes, 2 species of aphids and 3 species of plant mites. Buds and flowers damage 12 species of nut growers. Acorns damage 2 species of moths, 3 species of weevils, and 1 species of nut growers. The trunk and branches damage 8 species of bark beetles, 7 species of barbel, 3 species of cattails, 2 types of wood rodents, 1 type of flat walker, 3 types of goldfish, 1 species from the family of sharpeners, 1 type of woodworms (Napalkov, 1953).
In Europe, 542 species of harmful insects have been identified that damage oak (Hrast Luznjak ..., 1996). A total of 206 species of fungi were found, including zygomycetes - 3 species, mastigomycetes - 2 species, ascomycetes - 50 species, basidiomycetes - 43 species, deuteromycetes - 108 species. One virus was detected - the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), 14 species of bacteria (Erwinia quercicola Geprges et Bad., Erwinia valachika Geprges et Bad., Pseudomonas quercus Schem, etc.). However, the influence of viruses and bacteria as the causes of drying of the oak tree has not been precisely established (Ragazzi et al., 1995).
Oak healing power
For treatment, young bark of branches and trunks, oak leaves and acorns are used. The bark contains acids, resins, pectin, sugar. In acorns - protein and tannins, starch, fatty oil, sugar. The leaves contain tannins and dyes, pentosans.
Oak bark use as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent. In a mixture with other plants, it is used to treat gastritis, colitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, liver and spleen diseases. Inside, give a cold infusion (1 teaspoon of crushed bark insist in 2 cups of cold water for 6-8 hours) 2-3 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.
A decoction of oak bark (1:10) is used for pharyngitis, tonsillitis, skin diseases, stomatitis. For the treatment of burns, a stronger broth decoction is used (1: 5). For skin diseases, ointment is also used - one part of a condensed decoction of the bark into four parts of lanolin.
A warm infusion of crushed oak acorns on red wine (25% tincture) in the form of compresses is used to treat hernias, and folk healers recommend water decoctions for burns, skin rashes, excessive sweating of the feet. In addition, a nutritious coffee drink is prepared from acorns, which is consumed with milk and sugar.
For stomach bleeding, inflammation of the intestines, poisoning with heavy metals, alkaloids, mushrooms, bleached, dope, food poisoning, decoction of oak bark is used. For this purpose, 20 g of dry crushed raw materials are poured with 1 glass of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the volume of the liquid is brought to the initial boiled water. Take 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.
With diarrhea and enterocolitis, an infusion of oak acorns helps. It is prepared as follows: 1 teaspoon of dry crushed raw materials is poured with 1 glass of boiling water and filtered after cooling. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day.
To gargle with chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, gum disease and stomatitis, an oak bark decoction is used. For urethritis and cystitis, an oak bark decoction is taken 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day. For the same purpose, use an infusion of acorns in a similar dosage.
For douching with cervical erosion, prolapse of the uterus, dropping of the vaginal wall, vulvovaginitis and trichomonas colpitis, a decoction of oak bark is used: 20 g of dry crushed raw materials are poured with 1 cup of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the volume of liquid is brought to 1 liter with boiled water .
For baths and washes with allergic diathesis, a decoction of oak bark is used. For this purpose, 100 g of dry crushed raw materials are boiled in 1 liter of water for half an hour and filtered. If you sweat your feet on the broth of oak bark, prepare foot baths: 20 g of dry crushed raw material is poured with 1 cup of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the volume of liquid is boiled water to 1 liter.
Cold decoction of the bark makes applications for burns and frostbite, as well as for long non-healing wounds.