Fertilizers that are always at hand
Fertilizers can be not only in bundles on the counter, but also in our trash can, in the water from under the aquarium, which we periodically change, or in plant debris, which many of us do not compost, but simply burn it and, what is most annoying, even the remaining ash is literally blown away, collected in garbage bags and thrown into containers.
In doing so, we not only spend a lot of money, year after year, banally throwing out fertilizers that are at our fingertips and buying those that are in beautiful bundles on the shelves of shops, but often destroy nature, without returning products of its vital activity there , and stuffing it with not always useful chemical balls and granules of different colors, which the soil still needs to be brought to a normal state accessible to plants.
That is why the soil, even being enriched with "chemistry", can be depleted from year to year, crop yield may decrease, and the varieties and fruits of these varieties become completely different from what they were before.
Let’s talk today about which of the substances that we have at hand in the kitchen or in the garden, can become natural, useful and effective fertilizers for our garden, vegetable garden, flower garden.
The best natural fertilizers
The word siderata is probably familiar to every gardener, but beyond the definition that it is grass that needs to be buried, as a rule, it doesn’t get to it. In fact, green manure is a plant that has the highest seed germination rate and intense growth power, that is, they sprout quickly, grow actively and give a powerful green mass.
Using siderates, naturally smelling them, and not removing them from the site, you can significantly improve the soil, first of all, in terms of its structure: it may not become much richer in the nutritional sense, but looser and more “supple” - this is for sure.
Sidereal fertilizers, of course, are more suitable for large areas - in fact, prepared the soil, sowed and smelled. The humus contained in the plowed parts of green manure crops will slowly be transmitted in the soil, improving its structure and, in a sense, increasing fertility. In addition, green manure crops are good protectors against both wind and water erosion, they inhibit weed growth, which excludes the possibility of using herbicides and, again, improves the soil.
As sidereal crops, field peas (an excellent bean crop capable of accumulating nitrogen in the soil), white clover (having the same properties), white mustard, winter rye, rape and the like are usually used. Sowing of green crops is usually carried out early in the spring, as soon as the soil is deprived of snow and it will be convenient to work with it. It is not worth waiting for strong growth of sideral crops, which is not worthwhile on a small plot, which is on a large plot of land: as soon as friendly and strong shoots appear, you need to mow the grass, then plow or dig (if the plot is small), thus mixing it with the soil (covering organic matter ) It is advisable to complete all these procedures 12-15 days before the landing on this site of the main culture.
You can read more about siderates in the article: Siderats are friendly helpers.
I would like to talk about one more natural fertilizer - compost. This, in essence, is a banal mixture consisting of a variety of components or their parts (if you want), partially or completely processed by microflora. The most interesting thing is that compost can not only preserve its useful properties, but even improve them over time.
As for the composition of the mixture, then, if someone cares, say: the compost may contain parts of vegetables or fruits, the remains of bird droppings (no more than the 15th part), manure (no more than a tenth), and leaf litter , eggshells, drunk tea or coffee (especially if it is not a substitute, but natural coffee and tea), as well as mowed grass and weeds (only without seeds and rhizomes, if it is wheat grass), as well as various degrees of decay of twigs, straw and etc. Usually, a gardener or gardener assigns a special plot for compost, often this is the southwestern part, he encloses it with iron or slate and puts all the components in this box or pit, called compost or compost, if it is a box.
It is important to put ten wood sawdust or strong branches for drainage at the bottom of the bucket so that the rot does not gather and flows. After this, you need to alternate the organic mass of a dense composition and wet with dry. For example, put branches, sprinkle with sawdust, put something wet - repeat the process. In the future, every two or three days, this composition needs to be mixed in order to enrich it with air, otherwise it will rot without access of air, which is bad. Ideally, if you do everything right, then your compost will smell even nice, have the aroma of forest land and become loose.
You can read more about compost in the material: Compost heap by the rules.
3. Liquid fertilizer from weeds
To prepare this fertilizer, you need to take any plants, including weeds, the main thing is that, as we have already indicated, they have no seeds and roots (like wheatgrass). At its core, liquid fertilizer is the same compost, only it turns out much faster, and some gardeners consider it even more effective. Quite often quinoa, nettle, especially the youngest, and wheat grass (its middle part, safe) go to such raw compost.
Of course, you can adjust the number of herbs as you wish and lay out whatever you want. Ideally, for a better digestion (by the way, you need to put all this in half in the barrel, and fill it with water to the top), you need to add a tablespoon of urea, that is, nitrogen fertilizer, to the solution. Further, the container remains tightly closed with a lid, but once a day open it and stir the contents so that the fermentation process does not turn into a rotting process.
As soon as you feel the steady smell of ammonia, then the fertilizer is completely ready. Accompanying readiness indicators will be "bubbles on the water" and a brownish-greenish color of this liquid. All you have to do is squeeze the grass from the life-giving juice and use it as a mulching material, say, in the garden, but not under the bones. The resulting solution can be diluted three times and used as top dressing during the season.
4. Wood ash
We go further: wood ash, in fact, is what remains of the combustion of branches, sticks, leaves, tops and other things. Accountants say that combustion is the fastest oxidation process, wood ash is just what remains as a result of the rapid oxidation of once living tissue.
What is good about ash: it can reduce the acidity of the soil, although it will not be able to act as effectively as lime. The second advantage of wood ash is that it contains potassium (about 5%) and trace elements, however, in small quantities, and if it is added to previously watered soil, then it is also in easily accessible forms.
5. Manure or droppings
Manure is rich in a variety of substances useful for plants, but before application, both manure and chicken droppings need to be diluted strongly so as not to literally “burn” the plants and to minimize the risk of soil contamination by harmful organisms and wintering stages of diseases.
How to protect manure and bird droppings before applying it to the soil? Nothing is simpler: you just need to spread it on a flat surface in a well-open place and leave it to dry like that. Depending on how effective you want to see your final result, manure should be left to dry from a year to two. There is also a faster way to disinfect chicken manure and manure - thermal, but with this method, the beneficial microflora contained in this fertilizer can suffer along with harmful ones (manure just needs to be doused with boiling water, trying to wet its entire surface).
Fertilizers that we often forget
1. Coffee grounds
We turn to less traditional fertilizers, although for whom it is. So, coffee grounds, it allows you to turn your coarse, tired soil into a much lighter and loose. All that is needed is to add the rest of the drunk natural coffee to the soil in the amount of 100 g per square meter of soil.
2. Potato broth
Many people think that it is suitable exclusively for domestic plants, but this is not so, the main thing is not to water the representatives of the nightshade family (tomatoes, potatoes) with potato broth, because you can attract the Colorado potato beetle to the site.
Make a decoction in this way: first, boil the potatoes - in any quantity - then cool the resulting broth very well so as not to burn yourself and the soil, and pour on the soil per calculation - 500-600 g per square meter.
It is known that starch from potatoes also passes into the water in which the potatoes were cooked, but this is a real source of energy, strengthening immunity and contributing to the full development of the body.
3. Bone meal
Where do you think the bones and bones go from the meat and poultry we eat? That's right, they grind and they turn out to be something like flour, which can become an excellent fertilizer. There is a large amount of calcium in bone meal, so it can and should be applied to the soil, especially with high acidity. Bone meal also contains a fraction of nitrogen and phosphorus, that is, in essence, is the most real safe complex mineral fertilizer.
4. Cereal water
Cereals are often included in your diet - this is great and healthy. Just try not to send the water after washing the cereals to the sewer - this is an excellent top dressing of vegetable crops - just boldly pour it under the bushes of various vegetable plants, and you will be happy in the form of a high yield.
5. Aquarium water
Of course, if you have an aquarium of 40-50 liters, then the garden will be of little use to them, and if there are larger aquariums, then this is a real find. About once a month, you can change 45-50% of the aquarium water to a new one, and send the one that you drain directly to your site, because there are a large number of microorganisms that improve soil structure and accelerate plant growth.
I can only say about them that it is better to use them half-matured, that they perfectly inhibit the growth of weeds, retain heat in the soil if they are decomposed under the plants for the winter, and warm the soil faster if they are removed as soon as possible in the spring. We must not forget that they well retain irrigation water in the soil and look aesthetically pleasing, but at the same time, they can greatly acidify the soil - this is a minus.
Read more about the use of sawdust in the material: How to use sawdust in the garden and vegetable garden?
They are now booming: every publication necessarily writes about yeast as fertilizer. What is yeast - these are unicellular mushrooms, however, dramatically different from unicellular mushrooms of this type. They like to live in semi-liquid and liquid environments and multiply there. Yeast, of course, contains water, various vitamins, proteins, minerals, fats, phosphorus, sugar and nitrogen. There are many types of yeast, they are divided into bakery, fresh, dry granulated and brewed.
What is the use of yeast for plants? Firstly, it is an excellent growth stimulator and a source of beneficial microflora. So, for example, if you feed the plants with yeast, then the root system, overhead mass, fruits and berries begin to grow more actively. Immunity increases. Especially good for feeding seedlings with yeast, sometimes even their use helps to avoid stretching seedlings. With her overexposure, she just becomes more plump.
It is noticed that when watering with yeast, rosettes of strawberries take root better, vegetables, flower plants feel great. It is interesting that foliar top dressing, say for shrubs, will also be very useful.
So, we talked a lot about yeast, but how can we prepare such top dressing. Everything is quite simple, you need to make the usual leaven literally from what is at hand - stale bread, crackers, hop cones or wheat - the choice is yours.
Read more about yeast dressing in the material: Effective yeast dressing.
8. Egg shell
This fertilizer is more than enough, probably, in every house. There is, of course, one caveat - it is better to use shells from undigested eggs, and those that were intended for frying. In the shell of each chicken egg up to 95% calcium, there is potassium, magnesium is present and even there is phosphorus. That is why our grandmothers always put crushed eggshells in the holes when planting seedlings in the ground. Each of these substances decays rather quickly in the soil and becomes available to plants, especially at the initial stages of their growth and development.
Note that the shell from chickens raised on poultry farms, in very cramped conditions, is several times less useful than the one that the chickens produce, grazing freely on green grass. But by and large, it consists of about the same elements, which means that the plants may not really feel the difference.
Before putting the eggshell into the soil, you need to wash them well, try to wash off the rest of the protein, then dry for two days, then grind it, you can grind it, and put it in a cool and dry place before use.
Usually they fertilize the soil like this: pour a liter of water into a mass of shells, from about 4-5 eggs, and without adding any lemon, it is not needed there at all, they are kept under a tight lid for seven days. During this time, the type of liquid will be disgusting and can only be approached on an empty stomach. If so, then the fertilizer can be safely used. Before applying, dilute three times and per square meter use a tablespoon - no more.
And now that we have learned so much new things, I would like to know how to use all of this rightly so as not to harm the garden, nor ourselves, our beloved.
So, for the preparation of any natural fertilizer, use exclusively high-quality ingredients - no rotten meat. Always follow the doses, even natural fertilizers - this is not oil at all, but the soil, not porridge - you can spoil both. Dosages and frequency of application - this is only specifically for a particular culture, we now just can’t describe it all, we need a separate topic.
Before applying any fertilizer, evaluate its condition - understand if you need to actually feed it. Well, after all, if there is a healthy person, we don’t want to stuff him with pills just like that, just in case.
And of course, evaluate the condition of the soil in the garden, from my own experience I can say that if the garden is weeded, the soil is loosened and watered, then it requires a minimum of fertilizer.
Do not forget about acidity, the pH should always be under control, otherwise no fertilizer can help at all. Well, make fertilizers based on the type of soil: peat, sand, clay, chernozem, gray-forest soil, and so on and so forth.
Hope to help you!