Getting ready for July
July is the height of summer, the time of ripening of many vegetables, berries and summer varieties of fruit crops. Gooseberries intended for processing are harvested unripe. In the refrigerator, blackcurrant berries can be stored no more than five, red and white currants, as well as gooseberries - 10 days.
Harvesting of late varieties of strawberries continues.
Raspberries are harvested every two to three days to prevent its over-ripening.
Fertilizing vegetable plants remains the focus of the attention of an amateur gardener.
Plantations of wild strawberries that bearer for four years should be liquidated, fertilized and dug up the soil and plant dill or other precocious green crops.
During the summer, the soil is maintained in a moist state with pinned layers of gooseberries, currants, and nuts.
A real threat is the outbreak of late blight, which can destroy the entire crop of tomatoes. Trying to save something, many people practice very early harvesting of green fruits, but such tomatoes are tasteless and very ugly. To combat this disease, it is best to use practically harmless drugs. These include a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid, which is sprayed with all plants.
The first treatment must be carried out at the beginning of the month and then repeated after 10-14 days or after each heavy rain. The defeat of late blight can be reduced by covering the plantings with film before the spread of the disease. A harbinger of the onset of disease on tomatoes is the defeat (blackening and browning) of tops on potatoes. Just a few days later, the infection spreads to tomato plants. Do not miss the moment for processing! Bordeaux fluid does not penetrate the fetus through the membrane and does not present a danger to humans.
In the middle of the month, the cherry begins to ripen. To protect the crop from thrushes and sparrows around the trees, a grid with cells no larger than 5 × 5 cm is stretched. Birds are foiled by strips of foil, tapes of a plastic film hanging on branches.
In dry weather, it is necessary to water crops abundantly, in which there is an active growth of ovaries - raspberries, currants, gooseberries, cherries, summer varieties of apple trees. After each watering, when the soil dries out under the young trees, be sure to loosen the trunk circles. In rainy summers, grass under mature trees is not mowed, as it actively draws moisture from the soil.
During the pouring of berries, raspberries, currants and gooseberries need to be fed with a mullein solution (1: 8) with the addition of 50-90 g of superphosphate and 100-150 g of ash or 80 g of potassium salts per bucket. This amount of solution is enough to feed raspberries on a row 2 m long or 1 m long2 planting gooseberries or currants.
If the soil under the raspberries is covered with a layer of sawdust or small shavings (mulch), then they are raked before top dressing and only after that the plants are fed on grooves with a depth of not more than 10 cm.At the end of the work, the grooves are covered and the mulch is restored.
If the pests nevertheless multiplied and diseases arose, use all possible herbal preparations that are harmless to humans, as well as biological, agrotechnical and mechanical methods of protection.
Mechanical means primarily include the destruction of egg clutch of cabbage and turnip whites, after regular inspection of plants - the collection and destruction of caterpillars, oviposition, larvae and adult individuals of the Colorado potato beetle on potatoes, tillage between rows of all plants.
The most effective agrotechnical method of controlling pests and plant diseases is the cultivation of resistant varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops, the establishment and strict observance of crop rotation, the observance of all agrotechnical methods that increase the yield and resistance of plants to diseases.
Against aphids, berry bushes are sprayed with malathion (70 g per 10 l of water), but no later than the first decade of the month; on the apple tree, pear and plum spraying can be carried out all month.
Continue to impose hunting belts on the fruit tree trunks against the codling moth.
In the middle of the month it is necessary to sow the seeds of winter varieties of radish (“round black” and “white round”), but not radish, which gives one “bloom” during summer sowing.
Proceed to the sunny drying of blackcurrant, raspberry and cherry berries.
If, at the time of ripening, the fruits of the cherry are deformed, the flesh is almost absent and, in addition, summer leaf fall begins, these are clear signs of coccomycosis. Burn leaf litter.
Against this disease, spring spraying with copper-containing drugs is effective.
Outlets that are cut from strawberry plantations of two to three years of age can be planted for growing in a small greenhouse with rich soil. In two months you will have your own seedlings.
In the third decade of July they begin to budding plums, cherries, pears. For budding, rootstock (small animals) with a diameter of 7–9 mm (pencil-thick) at a level of 3-5 cm from the soil surface and cuttings of the desired variety (grafts) are needed.
A few days before the budding, preparatory work is carried out. For better lagging of the bark, the stocks are abundantly watered. The trunks of the rootstock are cleared at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground, all lateral branches and leaves are cut. The rootstock base is being unlearned, raking the ground from the stem to the root neck. The place of vaccination is wiped with a damp cloth.
Immediately before budding, the required number of matured shoots with well-formed buds are cut. Leaf blades and stipules are immediately removed from them, leaving only petioles approximately 0.6-0.8 cm long.
For a greater guarantee of survival, budding is performed with two eyes (from different sides of the wild).
You can cut the heads of cauliflower early varieties. At the beginning of the month, seedlings of medium early varieties are planted, and at the end of the month - early varieties. Before planting, the plot is well seasoned with compost and dug.
Ridges with carrots loosen and spud to prevent greening of the upper part of root crops.
After digging up early potatoes and harvesting early vegetables, you can sow turnip Petrovskaya. In the fall you will get a good harvest of strong juicy root crops.
Tomato beds should be watered abundantly, but not often. To accelerate fruit ripening, the leaves are torn off to the brush. This culture does not like stagnation of air, so there should not be any weeds or tall cultivated plants of other species on the ridges.
Eggplant is given a second top dressing. At the end of the month, you can begin to harvest the first crop. The fruits are ripened unripe. When ripe, the skin loses its luster and becomes dull, brown stripes appear on it, and the subcutaneous flesh acquires a bitter taste.
On the cucumber ridges, when harvesting, try to disturb the leaves of the plant less, do not turn the stems and do not change their location.
In July, parsley, dill, and lettuce are continuously harvested, and new crops of these crops are made.
Lovers of flowers with a two-year development cycle (mallow, daisies, pansies, forget-me-nots) should sow their seeds for seedlings. The time of sowing seedlings depends on the sowing time and the duration of the period of seed germination. For example, mallow, dive when two or three leaves on the seedlings. Plants are planted according to the scheme 20 × 30 cm. Seedlings of two-year-old cloves are placed according to the scheme 5 × 5 cm.
Turkish cloves sown in June are peeled right after emergence (early July), and at the end of the month they are planted in a permanent place. Pansies and daisies dive in the phase of three leaves according to the 3 × 4 cm pattern.
Work begins with tulips. Some varieties winter well and develop without annual digging. However, we advise you to carry out this operation from the end of June until the end of July (depending on the variety, the geographical location of the site, the nature of the weather).
Two weeks after the excavation, they begin to clean and sort the bulbs. First, remove the earth, the old mother’s bulb, and separate daughter bulbs. All operations must be performed very carefully. Remember that for bulbs that have completed the summer cycle of development, all faults and branches are very easy. If you feel that it takes effort to separate the bulbs, it is better to set them aside, and try again after a week. Most likely the operation will take place without difficulty. Bulbs are divided into three sections: the first includes bulbs with a circumference longer than 12 cm, the second 11-12 and the third 10-11 cm.
If you are satisfied with the flowering of tulips and are not interested in varietal purity, the bulbs obtained during sorting are poured into one box and put in a dry, ventilated room, for example, in a barn or cellar.
July is the month of harvesting seeds from all crops.
At the end of the month, cherry seeds (Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Fertile Lavrushin, Moscow Griot) are harvested, as well as cherry cherry-cherry VP-1 for growing seed stocks. For seeds to sprout, they must be stratified. It takes place in three stages: 60-70 days at a temperature of 10-15 ° C in a well-moistened substrate (sand, moss, sawdust); 90-120 days at a temperature of 4-6 ° C and 60-80 days at -1 ° C (from the moment of seed biting to sowing them on the beds). The last two stages take place in the basement.
Dill begins to be harvested when the seeds in the umbrellas begin to grow brown, and the leaves on the stems dry out and turn yellow. Umbrellas are cut early in the morning along with the stem, tied into bundles and threshed after drying in an aired room.
Beans of peas and beans are plucked not fully ripened. Well-dried browned beans are threshed a month after harvesting.
If green crops are grown on seeds only by the most zealous owners, then many amateur gardeners try to get seeds from their favorite varieties of cucumbers and tomatoes.
In cucumbers, seeds from the sinuses of the first or second leaf of each lash are left for seeds. Pinch over the fifth sheet and hang a label on the fruit. This is necessary because the plants of the cucumber are highly branched, grow quickly, and the fruit that is very often attracted, but not marked with a label, as if “disappears”. Seed fruits ripen 35-40 days after the appearance of the ovary. Harvested seed fruits are put to ripen (two to three weeks), when they become soft, cut and take out the seeds.
Growing various seed plants, it should be remembered that many of them are very well pollinated, losing their best qualities, so we recommend propagating one variety of cucumbers, zucchini, squash, asters, peas and many other crops.
Tomatoes do not have pollination, so many varieties can be propagated. For seeds, fruits on the second and third brushes are selected, marked with a ribbon and removed in the stage of full ripeness.
From the materials of Popov B. and Borisov N. - work calendar